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Bottmule Tower

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Germany, officially - Federal Republic of Germany. The form of government is a parliamentary republic. The capital is the city of Berlin. The official language is German. Catholics (32.4%), Protestants (32%). The population is 81,174,000. The main holiday is Oktoberfest. Currency is Euro. The Internet domain is .de. Phone Code +49. Time zone - UTC +1 (in summer +2). Member of the European Union and member of the Schengen Agreement (a Schengen visa is required for visiting).

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Bottmuhle Tower - Bottmuhle. In 1587, on a section of the city wall between the gates of St. Severin and bayenturm tower an architect Peter von Gleuel a wooden windmill called Goat.

And which in 1677 - 1678 was replaced by a stone (basalt and local tufa), the project of which was created by the Italian architect Alessandro Pasqualini (Alessandro Pasqualini) in the middle of the XVI century, when he worked on the construction of a number of defensive objects of the Cologne city wall. During construction in the 16th century, the tower had to be expanded to fit the width of the city wall. Initially, the building was crowned with a conical roof, but soon it was given a flat shape.

In 1835, Bottmuhle was sold privately. Since 1911, the tower housed the office of ATV Markomannia-Westmark Corporation. Since 1921, the tower is again in the municipal property of Cologne.

After World War II, the tower housed the headquarters of the Deutschen Jungenschaft youth movement, and since the 1970s, the Falcon Socialist Youth Union has been housed in the tower.

July 1, 1980 included in the list of architectural monuments. In 2011 it was restored.

Photo and description

Bottmülle - one of the many towers that were built in Cologne in the Middle Ages. The fortress wall erected around the city included more than fifty towers and 12 gates, because Cologne was considered an excellently protected fortress. The Bottmühle Tower was built during one of the extensions of the city, it is located near the equally famous Bayenturm Tower and the gate of St. Severin. Until the beginning of the 16th century, in its place stood a wooden mill, which was called Goat. It is known that Peter von Gleiel was the architect of this building.

Very soon, it was decided to replace the tree with stone. The architect Alessandro Pascvalini began his work in 1677, and a year later a new mill appeared in Cologne, successfully combining basalt and local tufa. It is noteworthy that the Italian worked in Cologne earlier, creating defensive structures.

During construction in the 16th century, the tower had to be expanded to fit the width of the city wall. Initially, the building was crowned with a beautiful conical roof, but it was soon rebuilt, giving it a flat shape. For a long time, remaining part of the best defense complex in Europe - and it is known for certain that Cologne won this competition even against Paris - in 1835 the tower was sold privately.

At the beginning of the 20th century, or rather, in 1911, the Bottmule Tower again moved to the city, and one of the offices was located in it. The history of its use is also remembered by the headquarters of the youth movement - the famous Deutsch Jugenschaft, which in the early 70s replaced the Sokol Socialist Youth Union.

Today, the tower is a real gem of the Middle Ages, preserving the style and beauty. It should be noted that the building was practically not damaged during the many wars, because the tower is also interesting as an architectural monument.

Cologne sights on the map

In Cologne, as in many other cities rich in interesting places, many excursions are conducted. But some tourists prefer to independently explore the monuments of history and architecture, museums and parks. In this case, it is better to preview the sights of Cologne on a map.

Cologne Cathedral

Each tourist arriving in Cologne rushes to the Cathedral, which is the main attraction of the city. The construction of the building began in the XIII century. It was built following the example of cathedrals being built at that time in France. The design of the church was carried out by the German architect Gerhard von Riehl. It took about 2 centuries to bring his brilliant ideas to life. The cathedral was striking in its beauty and extremely rich decoration. But from the XV to the XIX century, the church stood unfinished. Only in 1842, work began on completion of construction work. After 38 years, the grand opening of the temple took place. The monument of Gothic architecture is still preserved in its original form. He was able to withstand even during the bombing during the Second World War. From 1945 to the present time, restoration works are carried out in the cathedral. Architects have to make every effort to protect the shrine from destruction due to the effects of time and polluted environment. Today, everyone can see this pearl of Gothic architecture.

Church of St. Martin

Extremely rich history has the temple of Great St. Martin. Its construction began in the middle of the XII century. In 1220 the church was consecrated and met its first parishioners. The cathedral was rebuilt several times. It was rebuilt after a fire that destroyed the roof of the building, and after a hurricane that partially damaged the church tower. The most severe destruction of the temple was during World War II. The churches were first damaged by air strikes in 1943, and after 2 years during the fierce battles the building was almost completely destroyed. In 1948, German architects set about rebuilding the cathedral. Big Saint Martin was built according to old drawings. In 1985, the temple was consecrated, and in 2000 it was returned to the Benedictine monastery. The church is a historical monument of the city, attracting the attention of a huge number of tourists.

Church of St. Martin

Church of St. Panteleimon

Connoisseurs of ancient architecture should visit the ancient temple of Cologne - the church of St. Panteleimon. The Roman shrine was erected in the X century by decree of Empress Feofano. Due to many reconstructions carried out over a long period of time, the style of construction began to acquire baroque features. The temple was closed at the end of the 18th century and was used as a stable. Later it was equipped with an optical station. A century later, the church was returned to the parishioners. During the Second World War, during the battles, its walls were damaged by air strikes. But the temple was completely restored, and today it pleases visitors with an extremely rich decoration. It contains the sarcophagus of its founder - Empress Feofano.

Church of St. Panteleimon

City Hall

Listing the main attractions of Cologne, one can not help but mention the magnificent city hall. The construction of this magnificent building began in the XIV century. The Town Hall, which later became a symbol of the city government, amazes with the style of late Gothic. Its tower immediately after the construction was decorated with many sculptures. But since the decorative figures were made of sandstone, they quickly collapsed. They were updated several times. The last time the building was decorated with 124 sculptures destroyed during the battles in 1943-1945. Four times a day you can hear a melody played on the bells of Carillon.

Church of St. Kunibert

There are many ancient temples in Cologne that amaze with their ancient architecture. One of them is the church of St. Kunibert. Built in the Romanesque style, the cathedral, like a time machine, carries you back centuries, when the craftsmen were able to create such architectural masterpieces. Starting from the XIII century, when the temple was built, it was reconstructed several times. The most extensive restoration work took place after the end of World War II. Today the church is completely restored. Many women rush into it, wishing to be healed of infertility: according to ancient legends, the water from a well located under the choir has healing power.

Church of St. Kunibert

Church of St. Severin

In the X century, the construction of another church began in Cologne - the church of St. Severin. The construction of the shrine was completed only after 4 centuries. The church was built in the Romanesque style, but during many reconstructions acquired the features of late Gothic. The temple was completely destroyed during the bombing of the city in World War II. Immediately after the end of the battle, restoration work began here. Reconstructed according to old drawings, the church was lit in 1953. Today it attracts the attention of many tourists who have come to admire the beauties of Cologne.

Church of St. Severin

Since ancient times, the inhabitants of Cologne had to defend themselves against enemy raids. In order to increase the defenses of the city in the 12th century, fortifications were built around it, the first of which is Ulrefort that has survived to this day. In the XV century, the fort lost its defensive significance and its buildings were converted. At that time the tower was used as a windmill. In the middle of the 19th century, the constructions of the fort were bought by businessman Franz Karl Guileoime. He immediately set about rebuilding the fortifications. The new owner even lived in the walls of the fort. In 1907, Ulreforth became the property of the city. Only in 2001 there was a massive reconstruction, after which the fort was returned to its original form. Today this place is a historical monument of the city.

Palaces Augustusburg and Falenklust

When visiting the sights of Cologne and the surrounding area, tourists should take the time to visit the magnificent palaces of Augustuburg and Falenclust. They are located in the small town of Bruhl, located near Cologne. These examples of Rococo architecture were built in the 18th century. The main palace is Augustusburg. For a long time there were meetings of the German government with high-ranking foreign guests. Falenkulust is considered an auxiliary building, which housed guests who arrived to participate in falconry. Today, both palaces are recognized as historical monuments and are protected by the state.

Palaces Augustusburg and Falenklust

Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary

With bated breath, tourists admire another shrine of Cologne - the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The temple was erected for 71 years in the XVII century. The design of the magnificent building was designed by architect Christoph Wamser. During the French occupation in the XVIII century, the church was closed and for 10 years used for various needs. Only in 1794 the temple was returned to the parishioners. Due to the battles in 1943-1945, the walls of the church were destroyed. In the post-war years, restoration work was carried out in the temple for 30 years. Today, the church delights visitors with a breathtaking view and rich interior decoration.

Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Hanentorburg

Cologne's popular attraction is the western gate of Hanentotburg, which was part of the city fortifications. It was not possible to establish the exact date of construction of this amazing architectural monument, but references in ancient chronicles indicate that the gates were already functioning in the 13th century. For a long time a prison was set up within the walls of the structure. At the end of the 19th century, Hanentorburg was recognized as a historical monument of the city. At that time, they began to carry out its restoration. In 1943-1945, the building was damaged by bombing. In the post-war period, the building was restored and open to the public.

Eigelstein Gate

Another part of the defensive wall that guarded the city from enemies in the Middle Ages is the Eigelstein Gate. They are located in the northern part of the city. Their construction dates from the middle of the XIII century. When the protective walls lost their function, it was decided to demolish them, leaving the north gate. In 1889, the architect Joseph Stubbent began their restoration, which lasted more than 3 years. Soon, a historical museum was opened in the gate building. Not far from the monument, motorcycle races take place every year.

Roman tower

The most ancient historical monument of Cologne is the Roman Tower, which is located near the Cologne Cathedral. Its construction was carried out at the end of the II and at the beginning of the III centuries, when the city was still part of the Roman Empire. The tower impresses with its unique masonry. On its walls you can see amazing patterns. In the XIX century, the building was given the status of a historical monument, which is protected by the state.

Hohenzollern Bridge

Staying in Cologne, tourists should see the Hohenzollern bridge, the construction of which was completed in 1911. This massive reinforced concrete structure was decorated with towers, destroyed during air strikes. The bridge itself was blown up in 1945. In the post-war period, work began on the restoration of the most important railway communication across the Rhine River. It was possible to completely recreate the architectural appearance of the massive structure. In 1985, work began on its expansion. There are also pedestrian and bicycle paths on the bridge.

Church of St. Gereon

Connoisseurs of historical shrines should visit the ancient temple of Cologne - the Church of St. Gereon. The construction of the cathedral dates back to the IV century, although for many centuries work was carried out to expand it. Here you can see fragments of the old martyrium, which was the forerunner of a delightful temple, admire the floor mosaics. The church was able to survive even during the Second World War, when only 5% of urban structures survived. Its walls were only partially damaged. To restore their original appearance, the architects took about 40 years.

Church of St. Gereon

Church of St. Agnes

It is difficult to ignore the second largest temple in Cologne - the Church of St. Agnes. The shrine was built at the end of the 19th century. It is striking in the beauty of neo-Gothic architecture. The magnificent nave of the church, mesmerizing with rich finishes, rises 60 meters above the ground. You can admire the wonderful facade of the building, decorated with arched openings, a delightful openwork window with a balcony and massive columns. The rich interior of the church will not leave anyone indifferent.

Church of St. Agnes

Church of St. Ursula

Among the most popular temples in Cologne is the church of St. Ursula. It was built in the XII century, although scientists now dispute the accuracy of this date. Studies of ancient chronicles showed that services were carried out in the monastery of St. Ursula in the X century. Near the church in 1106 burials were discovered in which, according to believers, the remains of St. Ursula and her followers were buried. Thanks to such a find, the temple became extremely popular. In 1945, the church was completely destroyed during air strikes. Since 1949, work began on the restoration of the temple, which lasted 23 years. The church has a delightful Golden Chamber that attracts the attention of many visitors.

Church of St. Ursula

Roman-Germanic Museum

The rich history of the ancient city of Cologne can be found in the Roman-German Museum, which is very popular among tourists. It contains a large number of valuable artifacts, whose age is estimated at millennia. Each museum exposition tells about a certain time period of the emergence and development of the city. There is also a delightful collection of jewelry created by masters of the Roman Empire and German jewelers.In the museum you can admire various glass products.

Museum of the Cologne diocese "Columbus"

The attention of many tourists staying in Cologne is attracted by a rather unusual museum, which was built on the site of the church of St. Columbus destroyed in 1945. For a long time after the destruction, the ruins of the late Roman temple were part of the square formed here. But urban planners decided to build a museum here that would preserve the remains of the church from further destruction. Swiss architect Peter Zumthor designed the building, the walls of which preserve ancient relics. Inside, the ruins of the church are dimly lit, making them mysterious and delightful.

Museum of the Cologne diocese "Columbus"

Chocolate Museum

In 1993, a chocolate museum was opened in Cologne at the initiative of a local confectionery factory. This attraction is visited annually by about 650 thousand people. The exhibits of the museum are interesting to people of any age, but the youngest visitors are especially delighted when viewing the collection. There are many recipes for making chocolates and drinks. The museum also has a greenhouse where you can admire the plants used to make the sweet product.

Cableway

You can admire the picturesque scenery of the Rhine River and the streets of Cologne while traveling by cable car. From the windows of specially equipped booths, a breathtaking bird's-eye view of the city opens. But you can make such a trip only in the warm months of the year, since the cable car runs from April to October. Moving in a booth, you can see many attractions of the ancient city in 15 minutes.

Museum of Applied Arts

Extraordinarily rich collections of art objects are collected at the Museum of Applied Arts in Cologne. Expositions will acquaint visitors with the features of many architectural styles, from ancient Gothic to modern modernism. The museum has a huge collection of household items. There is also an exposition of antique and modern jewelry.

Museum of Applied Arts

The city’s modern landmark is the Colonius TV Tower, built in 1981 in Cologne. With a height of 266 m, it ranks seventh in the list of the tallest buildings in Germany. Until 1999, the tower was open to the public. An observation deck was arranged on it, from which a bewitching panorama of the city opened. But after an incident at a nearby restaurant, visitors were barred from entering Colonius. Now you can admire the TV tower only outside.

Hohe Strasse

A favorite place for walking and shopping among residents and visitors of Cologne is Hohe Strasse. This is a pedestrian street located in the historical part of the city. It began to form in Roman times. In the 19th century, a huge number of shops were located along Hohe Strasse, which made it a lively place. There are still a large number of trading floors offering a wide variety of goods. There are also many city attractions on the street.

Cologne synagogue

Jews living in Cologne had to endure many difficult times. They were accused in ancient times of spreading the plague and other misfortunes that happened in the city. Only during the French occupation did the Jewish community cease to be persecuted. In 1861, the city even built the first synagogue, which was completely destroyed after 77 years by the Nazis. In the postwar years, the synagogue was restored. Today, it pleases tourists and residents of the city with an amazing view, recreated according to the initial projects.

Botanical Garden Flora

Tourists staying in Cologne should visit one of the oldest botanical gardens in Europe - Flora. The base of this place dates back to 1864. The landscapes here are decorated in various styles, which also attracts visitors. Everything possible has been done in the Botanical Garden so that people of any age can have a good time here, therefore residents of Cologne often make walks here as a family. The Botanical Garden has a huge number of plant species. This place will seem like a paradise for flower lovers.

Botanical Garden Flora

The favorite place for walking in Cologne is the Reinpark, where a huge number of residents and guests of the city relax every day. Here you can walk among the lush greenery of trees and shrubs, admire the brightly decorated flower beds, see the landscapes of the Rhine River. A railway was even built in the park, which delivers everyone from one end to the other. Most of all, children are pleased to ride the train, so families often relax here. Near the park there is a delightful dancing fountain.

Overstolzen Mansion

Cologne has preserved many old mansions that are often visited by city guests. One of the most popular residential buildings is the Overstolzen estate. It was built in the 13th century by a wealthy family of industrialists. Over the centuries, the building was reconstructed several times. Large-scale restoration work was carried out here after the Second World War, during which the mansion was badly damaged. Architects managed to return the building to its original appearance. Inside the room, unique murals from the Romanesque period have been preserved.

Museum of Spirits

In Cologne, it is generally accepted that the first perfume bottle was made in this city. Here, at the beginning of the XVIII century, a perfume factory began to work, which even today delights fans of wonderful elite aromas with delicious compositions. About this and many other interesting periods in the development of the perfume industry, the city perfume museum will tell its visitors.

Fantasy Land

Staying in Cologne, it’s hard to refrain from visiting the entertainment park Fantasia Land, which has a huge number of different attractions. In this place, little visitors to the park and its adult guests will find plenty of entertainment. Most rides are inside buildings. This is due to the proximity of residential buildings, the peace of the inhabitants of which could be disturbed by the noise of entertaining people. You can relax in the park at any time of the year.

Ludwig Museum

You can get acquainted with the works of many artists in the Ludwig Museum. The gallery presents paintings by German and foreign creators. The museum was opened in 1976. His first collections consisted of collections of Cologne art connoisseurs. A huge collection of paintings was handed over to the gallery by Peter Ludwig, in whose honor the museum was named.

A visit to Cologne will be one of the most striking events in the life of any tourist. This ancient city is replete with beautiful historical monuments that have been carefully preserved for many centuries. Here you can admire modern beautiful places that harmoniously coexist with ancient shrines. The sights of Cologne, photos and descriptions of which can be seen in the article, are difficult to visit in one day. After all, each of them has a rich history, which will also be interesting to visitors.

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Bottmule Tower