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Sights of St. Petersburg: where to go

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Vielgorsky House is located on the southeast corner of the Arts Square. The first owner of the yard was Colonel Lankry. The exterior of the house is similar to that located opposite it, on the other side of the square, the house of Jacot. For both one and the other, facade designs were developed by K. I. Rossi.

The construction of the building began in 1830 or in 1831, when the site was owned by Prince Dolgorukov. Supervision of construction work and adaptation of the internal layout to a given facade was carried out by A. M. Bolotov. According to the design of Rossi, in the center of the facade from the side of the square there was a passage into the courtyard, and on its sides - two front doors. At present, there is no entrance from the square; instead of it, an entry was missing from the Rossi project from Italianskaya Street. The perimeter building usual for the 19th century was in the middle of the century complicated by the construction of new courtyard outbuildings.

In the 1830s, E.A. Karamzin lived in this house, and A.S. Pushkin often visited her. Later, the upper two floors were occupied by a prominent figure in Russian musical culture M. Yu. Vielgorsky. Living room and a concert hall overlooking the square were arranged in the mezzanine. In the 1840s, musical evenings were held in the house, in which M. I. Glinka took a lively part. Vielgorsky visited N. V. Gogol, V. A. Zhukovsky, P. A. Vyazemsky, K. P. Bryullov and others. All outstanding musicians who came to Russia from abroad performed here: G. Berlioz, F. Liszt , R. Schumann and others. In the 1850s, the poet A.K. Tolstoy lived in the house.

Palace Square

The main square of St. Petersburg. It got its name thanks to the Winter Palace, whose southern facade faces the square. In addition to the Winter Palace, there is a General Staff building, the Alexander Column and the headquarters building of the Guards Corps.

Address: m. Admiralteyskaya

Up to four million guests pass through its halls annually. Here are the masterpieces of da Vinci, Titian, Raphael, El Greco, Rubens, Van Gogh, Gauguin and many other great artists. Not a day is enough to get even the smallest idea of ​​the museum.

Address: Palace Square, 2, metro Admiralteyskaya

Bronze Horseman

In honor of Peter the Great, the symbol of St. Petersburg, the Bronze Horseman, was created. This is an equestrian statue of the emperor in Senate Square. The horseman faces the Neva, and with his hand points to everything that was created by the will of Peter.

There is a legend among Petersburgers that the hometown will be inaccessible to enemies as long as the Horseman stands still. They say that during the Great Patriotic War it was decided not to evacuate the monument, and only because of this the enemy was unable to capture the city. By the way, even more St. Petersburg legends you will find here.

Address: Senate Square, metro Admiralteyskaya

Cathedrals and temples of St. Petersburg

Kazan Cathedral (Kazanskaya sq., 2, metro station Nevsky Prospect) - a magnificent building near Nevsky Prospect. The Kazan Icon of the Mother of God is stored here.

Saint Isaac's Cathedral (St. Isaac's Square, 4, metro Admiralteyskaya) - an outstanding monument of architecture, built by Auguste Montferrand. The colonnade of this cathedral offers beautiful views of the city.

Church of the Savior on Blood (embankment of Griboedov Canal, 2a, metro Nevsky Prospect) - built on the site of the mortal wound of Emperor Alexander II. The temple stands out against the background of strict St. Petersburg architecture with its luxurious decoration.

Kunstkamera

This is the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. The famous Petrovsky “freaks” are stored here - anatomical rarities and natural anomalies.

The idea to create a collection of rarities came to the mind of Emperor Peter the Great after study tours to Holland and England, where for some time there was a “fashion” for “kunshty,” rarities.

Address: Universitetskaya emb., 3, metro Admiralteyskaya

Palaces of St. Petersburg

Winter Palace (Palace Embankment, 34, metro Admiralteyskaya) - the most famous in St. Petersburg. Decorates Palace Square, built by the famous Italian Rastrelli.

Vorontsov Palace (Sadovaya, 26, metro Gostiny Dvor) was built in the Baroque style, and its garden, fountains and alleys complement it.

Mariinsky Palace (St. Isaac's Square, 6, metro Admiralteyskaya) - the main decoration of St. Isaac's Square. You can go to it from St. Isaac's Cathedral on the blue bridge.

Mikhailovsky Palace (Engineering street, 4, metro Gostiny Dvor, Nevsky Prospect) - was built as a manor, and today a museum and a cultural and educational center are working here.

Konstantinovsky Palace (Strelna, Birch alley, 3, building 1, metro Avtovo) is located in the village of Strelna, was restored in the early 2000s. You can enjoy fountains in the palace park, and museum exhibits inside the palace itself.

Read about other St. Petersburg palaces here.

Read also:

Cathedrals and temples of St. Petersburg

Kazan Cathedral (Kazanskaya sq., 2, metro station Nevsky Prospect) - a magnificent building near Nevsky Prospect. The Kazan Icon of the Mother of God is stored here.

Saint Isaac's Cathedral (St. Isaac's Square, 4, metro Admiralteyskaya) - an outstanding monument of architecture, built by Auguste Montferrand. The colonnade of this cathedral offers beautiful views of the city.

Church of the Savior on Blood (embankment of Griboedov Canal, 2a, metro Nevsky Prospect) - built on the site of the mortal wound of Emperor Alexander II. The temple stands out against the background of strict St. Petersburg architecture with its luxurious decoration.

Kunstkamera

This is the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. The famous Petrovsky “freaks” are stored here - anatomical rarities and natural anomalies.

The idea to create a collection of rarities came to the mind of Emperor Peter the Great after study tours to Holland and England, where for some time there was a “fashion” for “kunshty,” rarities.

Address: Universitetskaya emb., 3, metro Admiralteyskaya

Palaces of St. Petersburg

Winter Palace (Palace Embankment, 34, metro Admiralteyskaya) - the most famous in St. Petersburg. Decorates Palace Square, built by the famous Italian Rastrelli.

Vorontsov Palace (Sadovaya, 26, metro Gostiny Dvor) was built in the Baroque style, and its garden, fountains and alleys complement it.

Mariinsky Palace (St. Isaac's Square, 6, metro Admiralteyskaya) - the main decoration of St. Isaac's Square. You can go to it from St. Isaac's Cathedral on the blue bridge.

Mikhailovsky Palace (Engineering street, 4, metro Gostiny Dvor, Nevsky Prospect) - was built as a manor, and today a museum and a cultural and educational center are working here.

Konstantinovsky Palace (Strelna, Birch alley, 3, building 1, metro Avtovo) is located in the village of Strelna, was restored in the early 2000s. You can enjoy fountains in the palace park, and museum exhibits inside the palace itself.

Read about other St. Petersburg palaces here.

Read also:

Cruiser Aurora"

The cruiser was first launched in 1900 at the command of Emperor Nicholas II in the presence of the entire royal family. And the same cruiser with his volleys announced the fall of the tsarist regime, indirectly betraying its creator. Today, Aurora is on a well-deserved rest - peacefully sleeping and taking numerous excursions.

Address: Petrovskaya Embankment, metro Gorkovskaya

Museums of St. Petersburg

In addition to the Hermitage and the Kunstkamera mentioned, there are many other museums in St. Petersburg.

Pushkin House (4 Makarova embankment, Sportivnaya metro station) - the museum building itself with classical columns, an elegant rotunda and dark stone sculptures is already interesting. The main exposition is dedicated, of course, to Pushkin: here you will see many of the poet’s personal belongings. Also in the museum there are things of other classics of Russian literature: Gogol, Lermontov, Dostoevsky and others.

The Russian Museum (4, Inzhenernaya St. and 2 Griboedova Canal Embankment) - the first state museum of Russian fine art. There are more than 400 thousand exhibits in all genres and directions from the 10th century to the present day.

Russian Ethnographic Museum - one of the largest in Europe, contains about 500 thousand monuments of peoples living at different times in the Russian Empire. The museum building itself is also an architectural monument.

For those who want to see something unusual, the Northern capital has prepared several surprises. For example:

Museum of Erotica (Ligovsky Prospect 43-45, m. Ploshchad Vosstaniya). There are objects, prints and paintings on a sensitive topic.

Museum "Kamchatka" (Blokhina St., 15, metro Sportivnaya). For a long time, Northern Palmyra has been called the cradle of Russian rock. Almost every courtyard here can tell a lot about the idols of rock music. Here, in the boiler room - in Kamchatka - Viktor Tsoi, then a novice musician, worked. His comrades came here, and the movie "Rock" was shot here. The house with a boiler room was almost demolished in 2007 - the public of St. Petersburg and youth movements miraculously defended it. Read also the article “Cult Rock Places of St. Petersburg” - even more stories about rock idols.

1. Peterhof (Petrodvorets)

Peterhof is one of the main attractions of the surroundings of the Northern capital. Its world-famous palaces and parks are monuments of Russian architecture, culture and architecture of the 18th-19th centuries.

Peterhof, won the hearts of tourists around the world who want to come back here again and again - a place of attraction and contemplation of the local beauty, as well as the largest tourist, educational and scientific center.

The first documented mention of Peterhof dates back to 1705. At that time it was called in the Dutch manner: “Peterhof”, which means “Peter the Great”. The project is deservedly called the brainchild of Peter the Great (1672-1725).

More than ten of his own drawings relating to Peterhof, and even more drawings with corrections and notes, have been preserved. The construction of a residence that is not inferior in beauty and luxury to the best residences of European monarchs, including the French Versailles, began in 1714.

Initially, it was intended as the summer palace of Peter I. In August 1723, the grand opening of Peterhof took place, and by this time the Lower Park had been planned, the Sea Canal had been dug, part of the fountains were in operation, the upper chambers were finished, and the Monplaisir and Marley palaces were built "

Peterhof was built in 1714 - 1723. The following architects were involved in erecting all this charms: I. Braunstein, J. B. Leblon, N. Miketti, F. Rastrelli, A. N. Voronikhin, A. I. Stackenschneider, as well as garden masters: L. Garnichfelt, A Borisov, B. Fock, T. Timofeev.

Even after the departure of Peter the Great to another world, architects, transforming the summer residence of the sovereign for one and a half centuries, not only carefully preserved, but continued to implement all the basic ideas of the tsar - reformer.

For 2 centuries, Peterhof served as the ceremonial summer residence of the emperors, which is inextricably linked with the history of Russia. The seaside paradise was built as a grand triumphal monument glorifying the greatness of Russia, which during the Northern War won the much-needed and coveted access to the Baltic Sea.

After the October Revolution of 1917, Peterhof turned into a major educational center. During the Great Patriotic War, the German invaders barbarously destroyed the palaces and the park.

The restoration began from the very first days after the liberation, and today this natural and man-made masterpiece welcomes its guests, delighting and surprising them, as before.

In 1990, the architectural and park ensemble Peterhof was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, and in 2008 it was recognized as one of the 7 wonders of Russia.

The fountains of Peterhof are a special fairy tale, the brightest symbol of St. Petersburg. On the territory of the Peterhof ensemble there are more than 170 fountains and water cascades, arranged during the reign of Peter the Great in honor of the victory of Russia in the Northern War and access to the waters of the Baltic Sea.

One of the most famous of them is Samson Tearing the Lion's Mouth at the foot of the Grand Cascade. An amazing picture opens from the sea - the majestic Grand Palace and a myriad of sparkling jets of star fountains waterfalls.

The main attractions of Peterhof
  • Grand Cascade
  • Grand Peterhof Palace
  • Upper garden
  • Lower park
  • Fountains of the Upper Garden: "Mezheumny", "Oak", "Neptune". Fountains of Square Ponds.
  • Fountains of the Lower Park: Labyrinth, "Samson", "Chalices", "Triton", "Pyramid", "Sun", "Sheaf", "Bells", "Adam" and "Eve", "Favorite", "Whale", "Lion Cascade", "Roman", "Training", "Newts-bells". Fountains-crackers "Fir-trees", "Oak", "Umbrella", "Waterway" and "Sofas". Cascades "Golden Mountain" and "Chess Mountain". Terraced fountains, Fountains of marble benches "Nymph" and "Danaida". Alley of fountains.
  • Voronikhinsky colonnades
  • House of playing cards
  • Historical and Cultural Project "Sovereign Fun"
  • Museum "Special Pantry"
  • Museum "Church building"
  • Museum "Bathhouse"
  • Benois Family Museum
  • Museum of Collectors
  • Monplaisir Palace
  • Museum "Catherine's building"
  • The Hermitage Pavilion
  • Marley Palace
  • Museum "Grottoes of the Grand Cascade"
  • Museum of Fountain Business
  • Museum "Imperial Yachts"
  • Aviaries
How to get to Peterhof
  • From the Baltic railway station - an electric train to the station New Peterhof or Oranienbaum. From the station in New Peterhof 10 minutes by bus: No. 344, No. 348, No. 350, No. 351, No. 352, No. 355, No. 356
  • From Art. m. Avtovo - buses: No. 200, No. 210, minibuses: T-224, T-300, T-424
  • From Art. m. "Leninsky Prospekt" - minibuses: T-103, T-420
  • From Art. m. "Veteran Avenue" - minibuses: T-343, T-693B
  • More information on how to get to Peterhof from St. Petersburg
  • All details in Peterhof audio guide

2. Alexandria

The Alexandria Palace and Park Ensemble is a place of constant summer relaxation for 4 generations of the Romanov dynasty. It adjoins the eastern border of the official imperial residence, separating the wall from the Lower Park.

Alexandria was built in 1826 - 1829. The architect was A. Menelas. Equipped such garden masters as F. Wendelsdorf, A. Gombel, N. Rodionov, P. Erler. Today we can enjoy all this splendor thanks to the merit of A. D. Menshikov, the closest associate and favorite of Peter I.

Alexander Danilovich Menshikov - generalissimo, admiral, first St. Petersburg governor-general, president of the Military College - owned this site. In 1725, he managed to erect here the grand suburban palace "Monkurazh" - "My Courage".

However, soon the Governor-General of St. Petersburg was in disgrace, his possessions were confiscated, and the palace remained unfinished. The courage came to naught, but the Empress Anna Ioannovna subsequently opened the Tsar Hunting Park - Yardgarten here.

A new page in the history of the future "Alexandria" began in the second quarter of the XIX century. In May 1826, Emperor Nicholas I ordered the construction of a cottage on these lands - "... a rural house or, so-called" cat "... with the addition of the park."

The emperor entrusted all design and construction work to Adam Menelas, an architect with Scottish roots. Menelas built the palace "Cottage" in the spirit of the neo-Gothic at that time, erected farm buildings, set up a 115-hectare landscape park.

With the participation of garden masters F. Wendelsdorf, N. Rodionov and A. Gombel, he managed to create one of the most interesting and distinctive landscape parks of Russian romanticism in the second quarter of the 19th century on the Gulf of Finland.

The romantic spirit of the place was especially emphasized by numerous neo-Gothic-style architectural structures: guardhouses, cast-iron wells, thrown over the deep ravine Ruin Bridge, near which at that time one could still find the remains of the failed Moncuraj palace.

The park was decorated with arbors, pergolas, garden benches. A stone sofa carved in a huge boulder has survived to this day. The architectural activity of Adam Menelas was continued by A.I. Shtakenschneider.

For 22 years, he was rebuilding a farm created by the Scottish master with a pavilion “in rural taste” and a roof painted with straw, finally turning it into the Farm Palace of Emperor Alexander II.

The name of Shtakenschneider is associated with the appearance in New Alexandria of the New Farm, the building of the Palace Telegraph Station and the Konstantinovsky (Admiral) house, intended for the second son of Emperor Nicholas I and Alexandra Fedorovna - Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolaevich.

Next to the Farmer's Palace is the house for the courier built by E. L. Gan. For many years, gardener P.I. Erler worked here, whose grave has been next to the Gothic chapel since the 70s of the XX century, the home church of the imperial family, designed by K. Shinkel in the Neo-Gothic style and has become one of the most original and beautiful buildings "Alexandria."

Restrained and kind, Empress Alexandra Feodorovna created in Alexandria a special world of love, family warmth and comfort, which was highly valued by the royal heirs: son - Emperor Alexander II and grandson - Emperor Alexander III, who spent the summer with his family in the Cottage.

And for the great-grandson of Alexandra Fedorovna - Emperor Nicholas II on the shore of the bay, at the very edge of the water, the architect A.O. Tomishko built the Lower Palace, which, unfortunately, has not survived to this day.

The cottage "Alexandria" was created by Nicholas I as a place of family relaxation. In imperial families, children were surrounded by special care. For their education, upbringing and leisure in "Alexandria" a variety of children's facilities were created, for example, a sports ground on the south side of the "Cottage", which was recreated according to the drawings of L. I. Linden, a teacher of gymnastics for the children of the emperor.

Near the Farm Palace, a children's fortress with a rampart, specially built according to the laws of fortification of that time, and a children's fire tower were recreated. Unfortunately, the Children's Farmhouse, the Dovecote, the Children's Farm on the Bay and the Water Mill, located east of the Farm Palace on the creek, have not been preserved.

The modern park "Alexandria" is a great place for families. Children together with their parents can visit the gymnasium of the Grand Dukes, take part in the Knights' Day, become participants in interactive programs, historical reconstructions, ring the bell at the children's fire tower or just take a walk in one of the most beautiful suburban parks in our country.

How to get to Alexandria
  • From the Baltic railway station - an electric train to the station New Peterhof or Oranienbaum. From the station in New Peterhof 10 minutes by bus: No. 344, No. 348, No. 350, No. 351, No. 352, No. 355, No. 356
  • From Art. m. Avtovo - buses: No. 200, No. 210, minibuses: T-224, T-300, T-424, T-424A
  • From Art. m. "Leninsky Prospekt" - minibuses: T-103 (K-224), T-420
  • From Art. m. "Veteran Avenue" - minibuses: T-343, T-693B
  • From Art. m. "Baltic" - minibus: T-404

3. Oranienbaum

Oranienbaum is the brightest page in the history of Russian art culture. Its history originates in the XVIII century. The closest associate of Peter the Great - Alexander Danilovich Menshikov at that time erected a manor with a palace and a regular park opposite Kronstadt.

Oranienbaum was conceived as part of a magnificent panorama, designed to meet all arriving in the new capital of the Russian Empire by sea. The ceremonial residence of the "first" nobleman of the state was to be perceived, first of all, as a symbol of Russia's victory in the Northern War.

Translated from German, “oranienbaum” means “orange or orange tree”. Tradition connects the origin of this name with an episode of the Northern War. On the territory of the future Menshikov Manor, a small greenhouse of orange trees was found, over each of which the inscription “Oranienbaum” was displayed in huge letters.

The find so pleased Peter I that the sovereign wished to give the estate exactly this name. It is also known that back in 1703 the tsar named one of the estates of Menshikov near Voronezh Oranienburg.

The image of the orange tree with its bright orange fruits became the main element of the Oranienbaum coat of arms. After the disgrace of Menshikov, the estate passed into the possession of the Admiralty College.

But already in 1743, Empress Elizaveta Petrovna granted her heir to the throne - Grand Duke Peter Fedorovich and his wife - Grand Duchess Catherine Alekseevna. So, Oranienbaum turned into the residence of a small courtyard.

For the amusement of the future emperor on the territory of the Upper Park, according to all the rules of fortification art, a "funny" fortress - "Peterstadt" was erected. Today, the short reign of Peter III is reminiscent of the preserved fortress gates and the palace of the deposed emperor.

A special place in the history of Russian culture is occupied by the ensemble of Own Cottage. The complex was conceived by Empress Catherine II when she was the Grand Duchess as a suburban residence with a Chinese palace for receptions and a Katalnaya gorka for summer fun.

At the end of the XVIII century, Oranienbaum became the property of Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich - Alexander I, then it became the summer residence of his younger brother - Mikhail Pavlovich. His daughter, Ekaterina Mikhailovna, married the Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitskaya, and grandchildren - Elena, George and Mikhail lived in Oranienbaum until their departure for emigration. Their descendants to this day carefully preserve the heritage of their ancestors.

After the 1917 revolution, Oranienbaum's palaces were nationalized. In the palace buildings, new services were located: educational and military institutions, hospitals. The Great Patriotic War was a difficult test for the former princely residence.

Oranienbaum found himself completely in a fascist environment. Defenders of the legendary Oranienbaumsky "patch", selflessly withstanding all the onslaught of the enemy, heroically defended this small piece of land, which became a stronghold of defense.

Thanks to the courage of our soldiers, genuine palaces and pavilions have been preserved in the residence, and museum collections have been saved. In 1948, the city was given the name Lomonosov in honor of the great Russian scientist who founded in 1754 near Oranienbaum, in the village of Ust-Ruditsa, a colored glass factory.

Oranienbaum, for a long time in oblivion, begins to revive today. For visitors, the Big (Menshikov) Palace opened its doors. The park is gradually being put in order. After a long and difficult restoration, part of the interiors of the Chinese Palace was opened.

“Oranienbaum” is the only suburb of St. Petersburg that did not suffer, was not destroyed during the hardest years of World War II. And today we can enjoy its palace and park ensemble, which has survived to this day in its original form.

The main attractions of Oranienbaum
  • Oranienbaum Park
  • Museum "Grand Menshikov Palace"
  • Oranienbaum through the ages
  • Church pavilion of the Grand Menshikov Palace
  • Museum "Picture House"
  • Chinese palace
  • Pavilion "Chinese cuisine"
  • Stone Hall Pavilion
  • Palace of Peter III
  • Roller Coaster Pavilion
How to get to Oranienbaum
  • From Baltiysky railway station - train to Oranienbaum station
  • From Art. m. Avtovo - minibuses: T-300, T-424A
  • From Art. m. "Prospect Veteranov" - minibus: T-343
  • More how to get to Oranienbaum from St. Petersburg
  • All details in the audio guide about Oranienbaum

4. Holguin and Tsaritsyn Islands

The delightful ensembles of Olgin and Tsaritsyn islands were formed in the 30-40s of the XIX century. Their creators are the brilliant architect A.I. Shtakenschneider and the talented gardener P.I. Erler. The islands were created by order of Emperor Nicholas I for his wife Alexandra Fedorovna and daughter Olga.

The local brightest sights, characterized by an unusual variety of decoration and emotional impact, and now do not leave anyone indifferent.

On the small artificial islands of Holguin Pond, their authors managed to create cozy gardens with pavilions reminiscent of the villas of ancient Pompeii and southern Italian country houses of the 18th century. You can start a walk along Tsaritsyn Island with a visit to the flower beds.

A large marble bench, decorated with sculptural images of ancient gods: Jupiter, Hera, Ceres and Flora, separates the garden in front of the southern facade of the Tsaritsyn Pavilion from the coastline.

Between the bench and the pavilion there is a flower garden, in the center of which there is a fountain with a marble pool, and in the bowl of the fountain is a statue of Narcissus, admiring his beautiful reflection in the water.

Touching in its immediacy, the Praying Boy, set in the niche of the pavilion, is a Roman copy from the Greek original of the 4th century. BC. She was found on the island of Rhodes. In the XVIII century, this sculpture was acquired by the Prussian King Frederick the Great, and one of the copies in the XIX century adorned the southern facade of Tsaritsyn Pavilion.

Empress Alexandra Fedorovna was very fond of flowers and was fond of their cultivation. Especially a lot of flowers can be seen in front of the northern facade of the pavilion in the Private Garden.

Here, roses of old varieties that were fashionable in the 19th century are planted. Some of these roses, in honor of the 300th anniversary of Peterhof, were brought from Germany and planted by Baroness Clotilde von Rintelen, great-granddaughter of Emperor Alexander II and, at the same time, great-great-great-granddaughter, A. S. Pushkin.

The invariable attributes of the garden on the island were plants displayed in pots and marble vases. Lily of the valley trees, olives, bananas, agaves, laurel and orange trees were kept in tubs. The flower decoration changed three times during the summer.

A ruin of marble fragments reminds of bygone days, and the most unusual decoration of Tsaritsyn Island is a mysteriously shimmering 5-meter column of blue and white glass tubes, crowned with a gilded sculpture "Girl feeding a parrot with grapes."

The pavilion served for the royal family as a summer residence. In the summer, they were transported to the island by boat or by special ferry. Here tea parties, afternoon tea, dinners, lush celebrations were arranged, and on the island of neighboring Olgin, theatrical performances.

Today Tsaritsyn and Holguin islands are connected by a wooden bridge. Holguin Island - the embodiment of the dream of Italy. The three-story building in the style of a southern Italian villa was supposed to remind Olga Nikolaevna of a Sicilian trip, during which she met her future husband, Prince of Württemberg, in Palermo.

The building in the form of a 3-story tower on a high basement seems to grow out of the water. Its flat roof has a terrace with a wonderful view of the Kolonistsky and Lugovoi parks.

The pastoral manor character of the island ensemble with the pavilion is given by shrubby and tree plantings, flower beds, strawberry frames of smoothly curving paths, peacocks and pheasants in aviaries.

Italy is reminiscent of the tender “Venus removing a sandal” cast according to the original by sculptor I. Vitali, and the Italian gondola is a gift from Venice. The very first gondola appeared here in 1846.

Boats and gondolas on the mirror surface of the pond, Italian music and singing, magnificent illumination and fireworks - all this created an amazing image of the “Italian” corner.

How to get to Holguin and Tsaritsyn Islands
  • From the Baltic railway station - an electric train to the station New Peterhof or Oranienbaum. From the station in New Peterhof 10 minutes by bus: No. 344, No. 348, No. 350, No. 351, No. 352
  • From Art. m. Avtovo - buses: No. 200, No. 210, minibuses: T-224, T-300, T-424, T-424A
  • From Art. m. "Leninsky Prospekt" - minibuses: T-300, T-420
  • From Art. m. "Veteran Avenue" - minibuses: T-343, T-693B
  • From Art. m. "Baltic" - minibus: T-404

5. Strelna

Strelna is the oldest settlement on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland. The name comes from the Strelka River flowing here. She, in turn, got a name thanks to the fast flow. Slavic root "-str-" means - "flow", "movement".

The first inhabitants of these places were Finno - Ugric - Izhora and Vodi in the 7th-8th centuries. Later, the Slavs settled here. In 1617, under the terms of the Stolbowski Peace Treaty with Sweden, Strelna, among other Russian settlements, departed to the Swedish kingdom. These lands are called Ingermanland.

In 1703, during the Northern War, Russia regained the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland. The Strelina manor became the personal property of Peter I. In 1711, the closest associate of the tsar, A. D. Menshikov, received the decree of the emperor to build a pair of huts, livestock and poultry yards and a "small fish landing" in Strelna.

Soon there appeared a manor and a wooden palace. Seeing all this local charm, Peter I wants to create a ceremonial palace and park ensemble in Strelna with fountains and cascades to further decorate the local area. And then began the construction of a stone palace and park.

During construction, for many geographical and financial reasons, the sovereign changed his previous decision. Peter I realized that it is much more profitable both financially and in connection with landscape conditions to implement this project in Peterhof.

Lightning ceremonial construction was moved to Peterhof. But Strelna almost completely lost funding. The park is becoming unpopular, and the stone palace does not have the proper attention. Members of the imperial family stayed in Strelna on the way to Peterhof. Then Strelna entered the era of Decadence.

This era ended with the 18th century. During the reign of Emperor Paul I Strelna passed into the ownership of his son - Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich. With this event, the reconstruction of the stone palace and the reconstruction of the park began.

After the death of Grand Duke Strelna, he inherited the second son of Emperor Nicholas I, Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich in 1831. Since the posts of the Naval Minister and the head of the State Council took a lot of time and effort from the heir, the main concerns about managing the estate in Strelna fell the shoulders of his wife - Alexandra Iosifovna.

Thanks to the efforts of the new mistress, the estate flourished in front of our eyes. New park constructions appeared here, household plots noticeably grew. In Strelna, she began to organize lavish balls and celebrations, festivities and musical evenings, at which sparkle performances - N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov, Johann Strauss and many other famous personalities.

The last owner of Strelna was the youngest son of Konstantin Nikolaevich and Alexandra Iosifovna - Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich. Under his patronage, a local hospital and a fire brigade worked.

At the invitation of Konstantin Nikolaevich Strelna visited - St. John of Kronstadt, singer F. Chaliapin, poets A. Akhmatov and A. Blok. After the 1917 revolution, Dmitry Konstantinovich was arrested, in 1919 he was shot in the Peter and Paul Fortress.

Under Soviet rule, a colony school for difficult teenagers was located in the grand-ducal residence. After World War II, the Leningrad Arctic School opened here.

Since 2001, the fate of the palace has changed radically. The former Strelina manor, by decree of the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, acquired the status of the Palace of Congresses state complex, combining the functions of a state residence, a museum and a business center.

By May 2003, the 300th anniversary of St. Petersburg, reconstruction work was completed in the shortest possible time in Strelna. The Konstantinovsky Palace was revived. Strelna gained worldwide fame. From then to this day, this grand attraction has been a "diplomatic window to Europe."

How to get to Strelna
  • From the Baltic railway station - an electric train to the station New Peterhof or Oranienbaum. From the station in New Peterhof 10 minutes by bus: No. 344, No. 348, No. 350, No. 351, No. 352, No. 355, No. 356
  • From Art. m. Avtovo - buses: No. 200, No. 210. Minibuses: T-224, T-300, T-424, T-424A
  • From Art. m. "Leninsky Prospekt" - minibuses: T-103 (K-224), T-420
  • From Art. m. "Veteran Avenue" - minibuses: T-343, T-693B
  • From Art. m. "Baltic" - minibus: T-404

The Ropsha Palace and Park Ensemble is an imperial residence in the suburbs of St. Petersburg, which, in terms of historical and cultural value, is on a par with the palace complexes of Peterhof, Strelna, Tsarskoye Selo, Gatchina, Pavlovsk.

Ropsha is one of the oldest settlements in the Leningrad Region, first mentioned in the Scribe Book of the Vodskaya Pyatina of 1500, as the village of Hrapshi in the Kipensky graveyard of Koporsky district.

In the XVI century, the Swedes captured the territory of Ropshu. And the settlement became the property of the vassal of the Swedish king, General Gastfer. On the map of Ingermanland, A.I. Bergenheim, compiled from Swedish materials in 1676, is referred to as the village of Ropsus.

After the conquest of Ropsha, Peter I built a small estate here with wooden structures and a regular garden, intended mainly for mineral water treatment, on the Prince's Hill near the Jordan Spring.

In 1714, Peter I granted the estate to his associate, Fyodor Romodanovsky, after whose death in 1717 the estate was inherited by his son Ivan. In 1722, he gave her as a dowry to his daughter Catherine, who married Mikhail Golovkin, the son of Peter I’s associate, Gavriil Golovkin.

Earlier in 1712, Peter I granted Gabriel Golovkin the manor adjacent to his estate with villages. The Golovkin estate had wooden structures and a regular garden. In 1725, construction began on a stone choir. Mikhail Golovkin inherited the estate after the death of his father in 1734. It was combined with the estate of his wife.

The manor house in Ropsha was significantly rebuilt, which was supposedly related to the architect Peter Eropkin. In 1742, Mikhail Golovkin was sent into exile, and the estate was confiscated by the treasury.

Elizaveta Petrovna visited the estate, amusing herself with hunting. On her behalf, the estate conversion project was developed by Rastrelli. A complex of buildings was created on the basis of the old manor house. The Lower and Upper Gardens were equipped. In addition to Rastrelli, Girard was allegedly involved in the development of the Ropshinsky ensemble plan.

Elizaveta Petrovna gave Ropsh the heir to the throne - Pyotr Fedorovich, the future Peter III. The heir, after a short reign, died under unclear circumstances. Then Catherine II granted Ropsh - Grigory Orlov, in which the estate was abandoned and fell into decay.

In 1785, Ivan Lazarev acquired Ropsha. Under the leadership of Grigory Engelman and Thomas Gray, the Ropsha park complex was transformed. A complex system of reservoirs was created, trees and shrubs planted, greenhouses arranged. Under the direction of Antonio della Porto, the buildings were reconstructed. Yuri Felten built a paper mill.

In 1801, Lazarev sold the estate to Paul I, who was soon killed. Under Alexander I, Ropsha was administered by the Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty. In 1826, Ropsha was presented to Alexandra Fedorovna - the wife of Nicholas I.

Under Nicholas I, the estate was managed by His Imperial Majesty’s Own Chancellery, then by the Department of Fate. Throughout the XIX century, the estate periodically conducted various works on its arrangement, and detailed plans for the area were also created. In Ropsha and its environs, Nicholas II hunted.

After the October Revolution, the Soviet government nationalized the Ropsha estate. On the territory of the settlement were formed: the All-Union Fish Nursery, the Lenin collective farm, which later became part of the Krasnaya Zvezda state farm, as well as the Oktyabrsky livestock farm.

From September 1941 to January 1944, Ropsha was occupied by German troops. During the Great Patriotic War, the Wehrmacht hospital was located in the palace. Ropsha was mentioned in the directives of the highest German military command as a strategically important dominant height from which a panorama of the central part of the city was viewed.

From artillery positions in Ropsha, the enemy continued shelling Leningrad and its southern suburbs for 2 years. Ropsha was liberated during Operation January Thunder.

On January 19, 1944, Soviet troops liberated Ropsha from Nazi invaders. Moscow saluted the soldiers-liberators with 20 artillery salvoes of 224 guns.

After the Great Patriotic War, the Ropshinsky estate, on the territory of which the flying military unit was located, was completely restored. The palace building housed the headquarters. During this period, the palace and park ensemble was maintained in good condition.

The military unit left the palace approximately in 1977-1978. The palace became abandoned and stood with windows clogged with iron sheets. In 1985, the palace was transferred to the balance of the Lomonosov poultry farm.

It was planned to build a sanatorium for 500 poultry houses there. Restoration work began, which was interrupted by a fire that happened in 1990. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, fires again occurred in the building, which severely damaged the palace.

At the beginning of 2010, the palace was in an abandoned state: there was no roof, part of the walls were covered, some part collapsed. In some places stucco stucco remained. The parks were neglected and littered, small ponds gradually turned into swamps. From the former grandeur of the estate there was practically no trace left.

In 2004, the Ropshinsky Palace was included in the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List as part of the "Historical Center of St. Petersburg and its associated complexes of monuments."

In 2012, it becomes an object of cultural heritage of federal significance, "The Palace with services and a park, XVIII-XIX centuries." and was transferred to the operational management of the Peterhof Museum.

Now the Ropsha Palace is a monument of federal significance, is a federal property. The remains of buildings and an abandoned park are under the auspices of UNESCO and are protected by the state. Today, large restoration work is underway here.

The main attractions of Ropsha
  • Ruined Ropshinsky Palace
  • The ruins of the Christian Dmitrievskaya - Peter and Paul Church, built in the XVI century.
  • The building of the Imperial Paper Mill
  • "Tank KV-1" - Monument to the soldiers who liberated Ropsh on January 19, 1944
  • "Stela" - Monument opposite "Tank KV-1, on the main street of Ropsha, erected in 1970.
  • Source "Jordan"
How to get to Ropsha
  • From the bus station "Kirov Plant" - bus number 443
  • From Art. m. "Prospect Veteranov" - bus number 486, minibus K-650A
  • From Art. m. "Leninsky Prospekt" - minibus K-639A
  • From the street of Red Cossacks - minibus K-638
  • From the railway station "Krasnoe Selo" - bus number 443

7. Tsarskoye Selo (Pushkin)

The State Museum-Reserve Tsarskoye Selo is located in Pushkin with a palace and park ensemble. Its construction dates back to the XVII-XIX centuries. It received the status of a museum in 1918, in 1992 it became a museum-reserve.

The territory of Tsarskoye Selo is divided into 2 parts - Catherine and Alexander Parks. Each of them has its own architectural composition, including main and secondary buildings, as well as parks and gardens.

The origin and development of the palace and park ensemble in Tsarskoye Selo is associated with the liberation from the Swedish kingdom of the old Novgorod possessions off the Neva, the construction of St. Petersburg and the establishment of the capital of the Russian state in it.

This territory has long been part of the Old Russian lands. In the XII century, the region was called "Izhora land of the Lord Veliky Novgorod", in the XVII century, "Izhora land" was occupied by the Swedes. The return of these territories to Russia began in 1702 with the victory of Russia in the Northern War.

At the site of the future Tsarskoye Selo there was a small estate "Saris hoff" or "Saaris moisio", which is translated from Finnish as "a manor in an elevated place." In Russian - the Sarsky manor, indicated on Swedish maps of the XVII century.

Immediately after the end of the Northern War, the manor was donated to A. D. Menshikov, who was appointed Governor General of St. Petersburg. In June 1710, on June 24, by order of Peter the Great, the manor was “unsubscribed” to the future wife of the sovereign - Ekaterina Alekseevna, and included in the category of palace lands.

In 1710-1720, a royal royal residence was built on the site of the estate, around which villages appeared, as well as a settlement of palace servants. Soon, the Sarsky Manor began to be called Sarskoye Selo, and with the beginning of the palace construction it received the high title of Tsarskoye Selo.

For 2 centuries Tsarskoye Selo was the summer ceremonial imperial residence, the construction of which was of state importance and was carried out with the participation of government departments.

After the October Revolution, the palace and park ensemble was turned into a museum, and the new authorities transferred the best buildings of the city to educational and health institutions for children.

In this regard, in 1918 the city was renamed Detskoe Selo. On June 9, 1918, the Catherine Palace was opened as a museum. In commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the tragic death of A.S. Pushkin in 1937, the city where the future poet was brought up at the Imperial Lyceum began to be called his name.

In January 1983, the palaces and parks of the city of Pushkin were given the status of a reserve, which in 1990 received its current name: State Museum-Reserve - Tsarskoye Selo.

Tsarskoye Selo Palace and Park Ensemble is a brilliant monument of world architecture and landscape art of the 18th - 20th centuries. The wishes and whims of the crowned customers here were realized by the world's most famous, brilliant and outstanding architects, sculptors, masters, architects, artists, painters, etc.

The best examples of Baroque and Classicism architecture are concentrated in Tsarskoye Selo. It was here that the first interiors decorated in the Art Nouveau style appeared in the Russian capital. The compositional center of the ensemble is the Grand Tsarskoye Selo (Catherine) Palace - a magnificent example of Russian baroque.

Admire the luxury of the decoration of the Great Hall and the Golden Enfilade of front rooms, among which is the world famous Amber Room, revived to a new life. Today, entering the palace, you can feel the spirit of the Elizabethan and Catherine’s eras and get acquainted with unique works of fine and applied art.

In Tsarskoye Selo is one of the best creations of classicism architecture - the Alexander Palace. Having walked through the rooms of his residential half, open to the public, you can get an idea of ​​the artistic predilections of the last representatives of the Romanov dynasty, and examine the emperor’s front office, decorated in modern style.

Over 100 monuments are dispersed throughout the Catherine and Alexander parks with a total area of ​​300 hectares. These are majestic palaces and intimate pavilions, bridges and marble monuments, as well as exotic structures in the style of Gothic, Turkish, Chinese architecture, which communicate a romantic atmosphere to the corners of the parks.

The palaces and parks of the unique Tsarskoye Selo ensemble suffered significantly during the years of World War II. The Catherine Palace, located in the occupied territory for 28 months, by 1944 turned into burnt ruins.

Some park pavilions were partially or completely destroyed. Other buildings of the complex received serious damage. In the parks of Tsarskoye Selo, dug with trenches and dugouts, 25 bridges, about 50 dams, dams and cascades were destroyed.

Restoration and restoration work in the reserve, which began in the 1950s, can be without exaggeration called unprecedented in international practice.

To this day, architects and restorers recreate the priceless heritage of the past, using traditional materials and technologies of gilding, stone-carving, stucco and other works of masters of the 18th – 19th centuries, the secrets of which are re-discovered on the basis of documentary sources.

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