Dunbar Castle is the ruins of one of the most powerful Scottish fortresses. The castle stands above the modern port of Dunbar, East Lothian region. On this territory lived the ancient Celtic tribe of Vadadins, who founded their kingdom Gododin at the end of the 5th century. The geographical name "Dunbar" refers to the British language. In the 7th century, when the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Bernice was formed on the territory of modern southeastern Scotland and northeastern England, Dunbar Castle was already built and served as an important strategic point.
During the early Middle Ages, Dunbar Castle belonged to the vassals of the kings of Northumbria. In 678, St. Wilfrid, archbishop of York, expelled by the king of Northumbria Egfrit, was kept in prison of this castle. In the IX century, the castle was burned down by the king of Scotland, Kenneth I.
The first stone of the current castle building was laid by one of the last counts of Northumbria, Gospatrick, around 1070. After the Norman Conquest, Gospatrick had to flee from England and he took refuge with the King of Scotland, Malcolm III, who granted him lands in Mercia and Dunbar Castle.
The castle belonged to the counts of Dunbar for several centuries, until in 1457 it was destroyed in order to prevent its capture by the British. At the beginning of the 16th century, it was restored by the King of Scotland, Jacob IV, and transferred to the Duke of Albany. At the same time, the western bastion was completed. In 1548, the castle was burnt by the Earl of Shrewsbury, but was quickly restored, and in the 60s of the 16th century during the Anglo-Scottish Wars it contained a French garrison. At the end of 1567, after losing the battle of Carbury Hill, the Dunbar Castle was destroyed by decision of the Scottish Parliament.
The octagonal shape of the castle is made of red stone and is located on a steep rock 22 meters high. You can see five loopholes measuring 122 x 30 cm. Some of the walls have survived, as well as gates leading to the main premises of the castle, decorated with the arms of the 14th century, including the coat of arms of George, 10th Earl of Dunbar and 3rd Earl of March. The triangular coat of arms crowned with a helmet and bordered by eight roses shows a lion standing on its hind legs. To the right of this coat of arms are the coats of arms of the Bruce clan, and to the left are the coats of arms of the Isle of Man.
Some towers are built so low that they go to the edge of the sea. To the north-east of the castle is a huge cave, formerly part of the prison, where in 1515 the famous Scottish poet Gavin Douglas, Bishop Dunkeld, was held in custody. A secret passage to the bay was also discovered here, and perhaps this is how Sir Alexander Ramsey was able to enter the castle with supplies during the siege of 1338. It is believed that the premises in the northwestern part of the castle belonged to Queen Mary Stuart.
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In the early Middle Ages, Dunbar Castle was held with the help of Ealdorman due to a tribute to either the kings at Bamburgh Castle, or most recently the York Kings. In 678, St. Wilfrid was imprisoned in Dunbar, after his exile from his see of York by Ecgfrith of Northumbria.
Later, Dunbar was said to have been burned by Kenneth MacAlpin, king of the Scots. Of course, it is at the disposal of the castle.
Kingdom of the Scots
In the 10th and early 11th centuries the Scandinavians made increasing successes in Scotland, and in 1005 there is a record of Patrick de Dunbar, under Malcolm II, engaged against the Norwegian invaders in the north, in Murthlake, the city of Marra, where, along with Kenneth, the Thane Islands, and Grim, Tanom Strantern, he was killed.
The first stone castle is believed to have been built by Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria, after his expulsion from England, after the Descent into the North, by William the Conqueror after Gospatric took refuge at the court of Malcolm III of Scotland. Gospatric was a powerful landowner in both kingdoms and could cause many people who encouraged Malcolm to give him more land in Merse and Lauderdale, in exchange for those who lost further south in exchange for loyalty. Sir Walter Scott claimed that Cospatric or Gospatrick was a compression of Patricius Comes. In any case, King Malcolm III is recorded as having bestowed the estate of Dunbar and c., On the "victim of deportation to Earl of Northumberland."
The body of buildings measured over one hundred and sixty-five feet from east to west, and in some places up to two hundred and ten feet from north to south. The southern battery, which Thunderstorm suggests, was a citadel or hold, located on a separate perpendicular rock, accessible only on one side, a high seventy-two feet, and connected to the main part of the castle by going through a sixty-nine-foot masonry measurement. The interior of the citadel measures fifty-four feet of sixty in the walls. Its shape is octagonal. Five of the gun ports remain, which are called arrow-holes. They measure four feet at the mouth and only sixteen inches at the other end. The buildings are arched and extend eight feet from the outer walls, and peek into the open court from where they draw light.
19th century castle engraving
Around the middle of the fortress, part of the wall remains, through which there is a gateway, crowned with coats of arms. Thousand gates seem to have led to the main apartments. In the center are the coat of arms of George, the 10th Earl of Dunbar, who succeeded his father in 1369, and who, moreover, the counties of Dunbar and March, inherited the reign of Annandale and the Isle of Man with his heroic aunt, Black Agnes Dunbar. They should have been placed there. after his successor, since he was the first to believe these sculptural Arms: namely, a large triangular shield, and on it a lion rampant, in a rim charged with eight roses. The shield is decorated with a helmet carrying a comb: curb the horse's head. On the right are in the hands of Bruces, and on the left are those from the Isle of Man.
In the castle towers had a connection with the sea and a minimum fall in many places. Northeast of the front of the castle is a large natural cave, mostly made of black stone, which looks like the mouth of Acheron - a place that leads to melancholy streams. This place was supposed to be part of a dungeon where prisoners were restricted, for example, Gavin Douglas, Bishop of Dunkeld, who was captured here in 1515. There is, however, also a dark back door that gives access to the rocky entrance from the sea, and it seems likely that it was through this that Sir Alexander Ramsay and his followers came in with a reserve of provisions besieged in 1338. 2
It was long said the castle was invulnerable, perhaps because of the many sieges it is stable. The castle was built with red stone similar to those found in quarries near Garvald. Large masses of walls that have fallen under the weight of time appear to be vitrified or run together. In the northwestern part of the ruins is an apartment of about twelve square feet, and almost inaccessible, which state tradition was in the apartment of Mary, Queen of Scotland.
The castle remained the stronghold of the Counts of Dunbar until the confiscation of George, Earl of March in 1457, when the castle was dismantled to prevent the occupation by the British. It was rebuilt by James IV near the end of the century. The castle passed under the control of the Duke of Albany and it was during this period that a stronghold to the west was built. It may have been designed by Antoine d'Arces, Sier de la Bastie which was placed in charge of the castle in December 1514. Albany organized further repairs and additions in July 1527. The Italian drawing for fortification of this period by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, marked as an opinion for "Il Duca D'Albania," was associated with Dunbar.
The castle was burned by the Earl of Shrewsbury on a punitive raid during the Rough courtship in 1548. Further re-fortifications in 1548 were sent by Piero Strozzi and Migiliorino Ubaldini. English soldier Thomas Holcroft spoke about the activities of Peter Landstedt, a German mercenary lieutenant Courtpennick (Konrad Pennick), September 24, 1549. Despite cannon fire from the castle, Landstedt received a foothold in a house in Dunbar, and used furniture to start fires in the city. Landstedt planned to make a trench in front of the castle in place of his weapon, and he thought that the walls of the castle near the city were “very old and low,” and now “revised from the earth and mounds,” these old walls being stone on natural stone. He thought the old high walls of the courtyard could be broken by bombing to destroy the "first walls" of the castle. These plans have not been implemented.
In May 1560, an Italian engineer worked on further improvements for the French garrison. These works were checked by Robert Hamilton at Briggs, the curator of Linlithgow Palace and the Master of the Royal Artillery, and Robert Montgomery in July 1560 on behalf of the Lords of the Congregation, who reported that it was "twice as wide as before" and capable of holding 500 more soldiers. New work was immediately demolished as a reserve for the Edinburgh Treaty. The local landowners were entrusted with the demolition of the "rampire," rampart with its desperate and oncoming ledge, and an excellent artillery platform. However, the French captain of the castle, Corbeyran de Sarlabous refurbished the cave, which was in the area planned for demolition.
The castle remained a garrison of 60 French troops under the command of Sarlabous until September 1561. In August 1565, during the uprising against Mary, the Queen of Scotland called the Chaseabout raid, she ordered repairs with firing points and artillery, and hand tools that may need to be rebuilt during the siege .
Dunbar Castle was permanently restrained by order of the Scottish Parliament in December 1567, after a defeat at Carberry Hill and a siege in September to extract the followers and relatives of Earl Boswell. Dunbar and the fortress on Inchkeith were to be "cast down completely to the ground and destroyed in such a way that there was no reason for them to be a reason to wait in this regard." In September 1568, some of the stone was selected for reuse on the seafront of Leith.
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Genus history| edit code
The ancestor of the Dunbar clan was Gospatrick II (d. August 22, 1138), Count Lothiana. He was the youngest of the sons of Earl of Northumbria, Gospatrick I, who fled to Scotland around 1072 after losing his possessions. It is traditionally believed that Gospatrick I was the grandson of Krinan Dankeldsky and, accordingly, a relative of the King of Scotland, Malcolm III, who gave Gospatrick the land in Dunbar and Lothian.
Gospatrick II had possessions in Lothian and the Anglo-Scottish Borderlands, probably occupying a high position in the court of the Scottish king David I. In addition, he enjoyed the location of the English king Henry I of Bocklerc, from whom he received possessions in Northumbria, which included the land between Wooler and Morpet . Most likely he died during the invasion of the Scottish army in England in the battle of the standards.
The center of the estates of the Earls of Lothian was Dunbar en Castle in East Lothian. From the name of this castle came the name of the clan. The first representative of the clan who used this name was Waltheof, the grandson of Gospatrick II, who began to use the title of Count Dunbar. His son, Patrick I Dunbar, married Ada, daughter of the King of Scotland, William I of Leo, who appointed Patrick Justiciary of Lothian.
Patrick IV Blackbeard, on the basis of descent from the Ada of Scotland after the extinction of the Dunkeld dynasty, unsuccessfully claimed in 1289 the Scottish crown. In March 1290, the title of Count March was recognized by an act of parliament. Since that time, the title "Earl March" began to be used as an alternative to the title "Earl of Dunbar."
In 1400, the King of Scotland, Robert III, deprived George I of Dunbar, 10th Earl of March, of the title, but in 1409, with the support of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, Regent of Scotland, George was reinstated. However, at the end of 1434, the King of Scotland, Jacob I, declared this restoration of the title illegal, since in his opinion the Duke of Albany exceeded his authority. Although George II Dunbar, 4th Earl of March, received the opportunity to defend himself in a court of peers, in January 1435 all of his titles and possessions of the Dunbar were confiscated, and George II and his family were forced to move to England.
John Dunbar (d. Between June 13, 1391 and February 15, 1392), the grandson of Alesander Dunbar, the second son of Patrick IV Dunbar, received in 1372 the title of Count Morea. This branch died out in 1430 after the death of James Dunbar, 4th Earl of Morea, who left only two daughters, whose husbands claimed the title of Earl of Morea.
There were other branches. Dunbar from Mokrum (the eldest branch now), Dunbar from Northfield, Dunbar from Hempriggs, Dunbar from Dern and Dunbar from Boat received the title of baronet in the XVII-XIX centuries.