Crotone. Calabria Italy.
Crotone - a city in Calabria on the shore of the Ionian Sea, founded by the Greeks in the VIII century. BC.
According to legend, the city was founded on the advice of the Delphic oracle and its name ancient croton received in honor of the son of the king of the island of Aegina Eak - Croton.
The fame and fame of the city grew rapidly, the culprit was the healing climate, the beauty of local women and the strength of men. Confirmation of this is a native of these places - Milon Krotonsky - an athlete who won the Olympic Games many times and could raise a bull on his shoulders.
Was known Crotone and his doctors, including Demochedus, a friend of Pythagoras and Alkmeon. Pythagoras himself moved to Croton and founded it in 532 BC. philosophical school.
In Croton, Pythagoras found many followers of his teachings and occult philosophy. He taught calm and self-discipline. Pythagoras was a vegetarian and believed in the therapeutic value of music, believed that immorality is a disease of the soul, and virtue is rewarded with the transition of the soul after death to a higher form. He believed in the transmigration of souls and that reincarnation is a process of cleansing the soul.
A man who joined the ranks of the Pythagoreans underwent an initiation ceremony, he was given signs by which the Pythagoreans recognized each other. The disciples of Pythagoras formed a brotherhood of initiates, consisting of a caste of selected like-minded people, deifying their teacher and founder. This order actually came to Crotone to power, however, due to anti-Pythagorean sentiments at the end of the VI century. BC e. Pythagoras had to retire to another Greek colony Metapont, where he died.
In the year 510 Crotone participated in the war with the legendary Greek city of Sybaris and emerged victorious.
In the VI - VII centuries. on Crotone the tyranny of the Athenian Kilon spread. And in 383 BC the city came under the rule of the Syracuse tyrant Dionysius I.
In 277 BC Crotone the Romans conquered, and in 194 BC became a Roman colony. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the city became Byzantine.
In 870, it was plundered by the Saracens.
In 1284 Crotone Aragonese conquered.
In the XVI century. the Spanish king Charles V granted special privileges to the city and built a port. In 1541, the castle, now known as the castle of Charles V., was restored.
In the XVI century. the city began to be called Kotrone. And only in 1928 he changed his name to modern - Crotone.
History Center Crotone formed in the Middle Ages, surrounded by a stone wall with interweaving of narrow streets that lead to Duomo - Cathedralbuilt in the 9th century Facade of the cathedral in neoclassical style.
In the XVI century. the cathedral was reconstructed, inside the Byzantine painting of the Madonna (Black Madonna), which was brought from Palestine. In honor of this Madonna, a celebration takes place on May 30.
Church of San Giuseppe in 1719 in the baroque style. Inside the church are three naves and an altar of marble, as well as wooden statues, among which a statue of St. Giuseppe, St. Gregory and St. Nicholas of Bari.
Church of San Giuseppe (18th century)
Church of the Virgin (Immacolata) It was erected in 1500 with a neoclassical facade. Inside is one nave and frescoes dedicated to the life of Mary. Crypt with the relics of monks.
Church of the Virgin (17th century) Crotone.
Church and Monastery of Santa Chiara were founded in 1400. The church is decorated with frescoes (beginning of the 18th century), the floor is handmade Neapolitan majolica. The facade is decorated with graffiti.
Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul It was founded in 1460 at the monastery. In the XVIII century. it was a rich and well-groomed church with six altars. But after the earthquake in 1783, the monastery was abolished. The church fell into disrepair, traces of frescoes are still visible in some places.
On a hill in the old town is Charles V Castle, which was built in 840 during the attacks of the Saracens. But in the XVI century. Charles V rebuilt the castle. Now there is an archaeological museum. At the base of the castle is a polygon with two towers - the Commander’s tower and the Assistant’s tower.
The streets of the old city.
The streets of the old city.
IN Crotone along the Ionian Sea runs the promenade via Cristoforo Colombo and viale Gramsci. There are bars, restaurants, in the evenings the promenade is filled with beautifully dressed people.
Here are paid and free city beaches.
Monument to the fallen at work.
Near Crotone (10 km) on a picturesque cape in a place called Capo Colonna there is a Doric column, the only thing left of the largest temple of Great Greece - Temple of Hera Lacinia (VI century BC), Queen of heaven.
Temple of Hera Lazinia. Crotone.
The temple had the classical form inherent in Greek temples, surrounded by 48 Doric columns 8 meters high and covered with a marble roof.
The temple complex consisted of several buildings, now only ruins remain from them.
Where to eat in Croton:
Pizzeria La Gola(www.pizzerialagolagiancarlo.it)
It serves a variety of pizzas with seafood, fish, meat and vegetables. As well as dishes with potatoes and other dishes.
Pizza from La Gola.
Gambero roso. Restaurant on the central promenade overlooking the sea. With a beautiful panorama. Seafood, fish, pasta, pizza.
Gambero Rosso. Crotone.
Near Crotone in Ciro produce excellent wine: Ciro (the one that, according to legend, was awarded to Olympic athletes), Melissa and more.
One of the most famous wineries Librandiwhose wines can be found in almost any store in the city. But it is better to buy wine at the wineries (enoteca), as the conditions for transporting and storing wine are better observed there.
Vinotheques of the city:
Marino. Via Nicoletta, 3 (near the historic city center). Large selection of wines (about 800 items).
Squillace vincenzo. Via Venezia, 80. This winery is simpler, but the owner will be happy to chat with you and pour a taste of table wine from huge barrels for free.
Squillace Vincenzo. Crotone.
Museum in Croton:
National Archaeological Museum.Via Risorgimento, 120. Every day 9.00-19.00. Closed on the first and third Monday of each month.
Genie fabrics Southern traditions
The south of Italy has an ancient tradition associated with the production of fabric from plants. Especially for this purpose, a ginster, bushes of which are generously scattered throughout the southern part of the peninsula, was suitable.
Croton was founded by the Greeks in 708 BC. Despite the flaws of the bay, the city served as the only harbor on the stretch of coast from Tarenta to Regia, thanks to which it quickly achieved prosperity. The ancient settlement occupied a hill, where over time the acropolis, traditional for Hellenic polis, arose.
Starting from 580 BC, the Crotonians shone at the Olympics and were famous in Hellas for the art of healing. The democoed from Croton was mentioned by Herodotus as "a doctor who excelled all his contemporaries with art." In 530 BC e. Pythagoras founded a philosophical and ethical school in Croton, which supported the local oligarchic government. In 510 BC e. Milon of Crotons defeated Crotona's main rival, the city of Sibaris. Soon after, the tyranny of Clinius was established. The Pythagoreans left Croton, and tyranny replaced democracy. At the end of the VI century BC, Croton for a short time became the most powerful city in Great Greece.
By the 4th century BC, there were signs of crisis. In 379 BC e. Croton for 12 years passed under the rule of the Syracuse tyrant Dionysius I. In 295 BC. e. in Croton ruled the tyrant Menedemos, who was expelled by the Syracuse king Agathocles, after which the city briefly became part of his Syracuse state.
Ancient Rome edit |Online guides to the countries of the world. Photo, description, useful information
Some may say that located in Calabria Crotone city it is not Italy at all, but Greece. After all, the city was founded by Greek colonists, immigrants from the Peloponnese, and in ancient times the city was inhabited by the Greeks. And although many years have passed since then, the language of the inhabitants tends to be more Greek than Italian. However, only sophisticated linguists will be able to catch this nuance by ear.
History of Crotone
The city was founded in 710 BC. Due to its favorable location, as well as the entrepreneurial spirit of local residents, it quickly became one of the largest and most prosperous cities of the Great Greece (so in antiquity they called the territories of Greek settlements in southern Italy).
The ruins of the ancient Greek structures in Croton
Residents of Crotone were also known in the ancient world due to their excellent physical fitness (they repeatedly won Olympic Games), as well as the moderate lifestyle that they led.
Thriving in the city and science. So a special glory in the ancient world found medical school, and besides, the city was held in high esteem for medicine and mathematics.
One of the most famous events in the history of the ancient world was the war of the inhabitants of Crotone with their neighbors sybarites. Sybarites were famous for leading an idle lifestyle. Both cities vied for hegemony in southern Italy. The case ended in war, and the natural, in my opinion, victory Crotone.
Castle city view
In 480 BC the city sent warships to participate in The battle of salamis. However, in the same year, the inhabitants of the city were defeated by their neighbors, and the era of the decline of the city began.
During the Second Punic War, Hannibal chose Crotone as the wintering spot for his army. In 194 BC the city became one of the colonies of Rome. As part of the Roman Empire, it was an insignificant city. Few facts have been preserved about his history of this period. And after the collapse of the Roman Empire, he shared the fate of other cities in Calabria. The city, at different periods of history, was owned by different peoples. It was visited by the Saracens and Normans, the Spaniards and the French. In 1861, Crotone became part of a united Italy.
Crotone Cathedral. The city's cathedral was built in the 9th century. Like many other monumental cathedrals in Europe, the cathedral was rebuilt several times in subsequent years, and therefore in its appearance there are features of several architectural styles. One of the attractions of the cathedral is the icon of the Black Madonna, which, according to legend, appeared in the city at the dawn of the Christian era.
Crotone Castle. The castle was built in the 16th century by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles the Fifth. Today, the castle houses a museum where artifacts found during excavations of the ancient city are exhibited. Also noteworthy are the walls of the castle, which offer beautiful views of the city and its surroundings.
Antique Castle Ruins. The ancient fortress of the city is located on an island that is connected to the mainland by a small strip of land.