Gubbio - A city in Umbria, on the very border with the Marche region. Gubbio is surrounded by mountains, its surroundings are striking in the beauty of natural landscapes. The city itself is part of two Italian associations: the city of truffles and the city of ceramics, which will be discussed below.
This area has been inhabited since time immemorial, so archaeological evidence suggests that already in the III-I centuries. BC. Gubbio was an important urban center of Umbria. It goes about seven bronze tables on which there are eugubic inscriptions made 200 years BC In those days, the city was called Eugubium, these tables were attached to the wall of the temple, and priests could, checking with them, perform religious services.
Until III century BC. Gubbio entered into an alliance with Rome. During the Roman Empire, the city flourished, leaving rich evidence in the form of the ruins of a theater and other buildings. After the fall of the empire, the city was destroyed by the Goths, then the rule of Byzantium, and later the Lombards, followed.
In the 11th century, Gubbio became a free commune.
In 1257, Gubbio was defeated by Perugia, which captured part of the territories. In 1273, a peace was made that brought calm and flowering to Gubbio. The population grew, art and production developed, palaces were built, a new wall grew around the city.
Development stopped in 1350, when Giovanni Gabrielli became the city's signor. In 1354, Gubbio was annexed to the papal region, leaving him the privileges and special status of the ancient city. But in 1376, the townspeople rebelled and established self-government. But soon bishop Gabrielle Gabrielli seized power. The period of struggle and rebellion began. In the end, power was transferred to Montefeltro, the dukes of Urbino. Gubbio lost the status of a “free commune”, but gained peace. The revival of the city began, new buildings were erected, among them the ducal palace. Gubbio was in the hands of Montefeltro until 1508, then power passed to the Della Rover dynasty and lasted until 1631. After the death of the last heir, Gubbio became part of the papal region. For Gubbio, this was a period of economic and political decadence.
With the advent of Napoleon, the city became part of the Cisalpine Republic, and then the Roman Republic, then the Kingdom of Italy.
In 1860, Gubbio became part of a united Italy. The subsequent agrarian crisis forced local residents to seek work outside their homeland, this situation lasted until the middle of the 20th century.
He meets everyone coming to Gubbio Church of St. Francis (Chiesa di San Francesco). It was erected in 1291, and the octagonal bell tower was added later in the 15th century, which is noticeable in the different masonry. Inside the church, frescoes have been preserved.
Church of St. Francis.
To the left of the church are the ruins of the roman theaterbuilt in the 1st century BC. - Witnesses of the ancient Roman period of Gubbio.
But we will go into the old part of the city by via Repubblica.
A narrow street lined with cobblestones lazily rises. Very soon there will be a left turn, where is Church of St. John the Baptist (San Giovanni Battista).
Church of St. John the Baptist. .
A small area similar to a patio is typical of Gubbio. Once the area was even smaller, most of it was occupied by an ancient mill, in 1870 the mill was removed, and the area was expanded.
Church of St. John the Baptist was the first Cathedral of the city, it is dedicated to the ancient patron saint of Gubbio. The church was built in the XII-XIV centuries. The facade is made in the Gothic style, the bell tower - in the Romanesque.
Inside, fragments of frescoes have been preserved, but most have been lost. For many years the church was the only religious building of Gubbio, which was used for Baptism.
Interior. Church of St. John the Baptist.
Gubbio was not built randomly and randomly, houses and other buildings appeared according to the exact plan.
So the church of St. John is located in the geometric center of the ancient city. In the north of it, the first city square was later defeated and a new Cathedral was laid.
In the XIII century. Three monasteries were founded in Gubbio, which belonged to three monastic orders: St. Francis in the south of the church, St. Augustine in the east, St. Dominic in the west. Monastery churches formed a cross.
In the center of the semi-axes, passing from north to south, the most important buildings of the city were erected: the Consular Palace, the Pretoria Palace and the Tiratori Gallery.
We continue our route along via Repubblicathen right along via Savelli della Porta and up the steps to via XX Settembre and to the left. Or just use the elevator.
Gubbio street staircase.
We are at piazza Grande.
Piazza Grande is the very center of Gubbiowhich combines the four quarters of the city. The area is a terrace with magnificent panorama of Gubbio.
It contains important and significant palaces of the city, among which dominates Consular Palace (Palazzo dei Consoli).
Consular Palace. Gubbio.
It was erected in the fourteenth century. in the Gothic style and was a symbol of political power, it kept the famous bronze tablets, witnesses of the ancient history of the Umbrian people. Since 1901, the city museum has been located within its walls, which houses archaeological collections and artwork.
Pretoria Palace (Palazzo Pretorio) located opposite the Consular Palace. The construction of the Pretor Palace began in 1349 and lasted until the 17th century, but never ended. Now here is the city government of Gubbio.
Piazza Grande. Gubbio.
Back to via XX Settembre and get to the turn on via Cattedrale, which leads to the Cathedral. Or use the elevator again.
Cathedral dedicated to the Christian first martyrs saints Mariano and Giacomo. The cathedral was erected in 1190 according to the project of Giovanni da Gubbio. Later, the cathedral was rebuilt and expanded. The facade is distinguished by rigor and simplicity, it is decorated only with a staircase and a rosette, surrounded by a symbol of four evangelists and a lamb.
Cathedral. Gubbio. .
Ducal Palace (Palazzo Ducale) It is opposite the Cathedral. The palace was erected by order of Federico da Montefeltro in 1470. Inside the palace was the duke's studio, in which the ceiling and walls were covered with magnificent inlays, realized in 1479-82. Florentine craftsmen. Unfortunately, all this was sold to the New York Metropolitan Museum in 1939.
Rise up via Sant’Ubaldo to the basilica. This can be done on foot. Tiring, quite difficult, but beautiful views open up, if the physical form allows you to take a 25-minute walk along a path that goes steeply up, then go up. Otherwise, use the funicular (www.funiviagubbio.it), which is located vai Appennino - via San Girolamo. Light cubicle cabins will quickly deliver upstairs to the basilica.
10.00 - 13.15
14.30 - 17.00
(closed on Wednesday)
Funicular. Gubbio. Italy.
City view (1). Gubbio.
City view (2). Gubbio.
Basilica of Saint Ubaldo (Basilica di Sant'Ubaldo) rises on a hill at an altitude of 827 meters above sea level.
Basilica of St. Ubaldo.
It is stored body of the patron saint of Gubbio - Ubaldoby whose name the city is named. The decision was made to build the basilica in 1194 by the two Duchesses Elizabeth and Eleanor Gonzaga.
But work began only in 1513, and ended in 1527. The basilica was richly decorated in the Renaissance and Baroque style, but the fire during the First World War destroyed the decoration.
In the basilica are stored famous candles that are carried around the city every year on May 15 on the day of the patron saint of the city of St. Ubaldo.
Candlelight Festival is one of the most popular in Italy. Huge candles are placed on platforms and carried through the streets of the city. Each candle symbolizes a saint: Ubaldo - for builders, Antonio - for peasants and George - for merchants. The holiday attracts many tourists; on other days, giant candles can be seen in the Basilica of St. Ubald, as well as visit the candle history museum located nearby.
Gubbio is known as the city where they produce ceramics, and forged and wooden products.
Ceramics - historical production, which took shape in Gubbio at the end of the XV beginning of the XVI centuries. By 1920, numerous factories and workshops were opened.
Work on metal began to develop from the 16th century. In the Middle Ages, wood workshops were born, which reached the peak of their dawn in the 15th and 18th centuries, producing stylish furniture.
What to try in Gubbio:
Gubbio's cuisine is closely connected with the gifts of the earth.
It is simple and natural - meat, game, cheeses, sausages, vegetables make up its basis. Various herbs, olive oil, wines and mineral water are also used.
Traditional rural cuisine is rooted deep and is not distinguished by sophistication. Most dishes are grilled over charcoal.
In the forests around Gubbio, white and black truffles are harvested.
Gubbio in the past was known in Latin under the names Eugubium and Igvium. History of Iguvius (Umbrsk. Ikuvium) goes back to the Umbra settlement, which entered into an alliance with the Romans. The theater building has been preserved from ancient times. In 1444, in the ruins of the temple of Jupiter, the Iguwin tables were found - the most significant monument of the Umbrian language.
Already in 413, Gubbio had his own bishop. Gubbio spent the medieval period as an independent commune, which constantly fought against neighboring cities. The decline of the power of the Gubian clan Gabrielli led to the fact that in 1384 the city was occupied by the Urban family of Montefeltro. Until 1624, Gubbio was a member of the Duchy of Urbino, and then passed to the popes. In the 16th century, it was famous throughout Italy for its ceramics.
Gubbio stands out among the Umbrian cities for the safety and numerous medieval monuments. The iguana tables are kept in the museum of local lore, which shares the picturesque building of the town hall of the mid-14th century with the art gallery. Many ancient churches, including the 13th century cathedral. The Ducal Palace of Federigo da Montefeltro in detail recalls his famous brother in Urbino. P.P. Muratov, who visited the city at the beginning of the 20th century, expressed his impressions in this way:
This strange city surprises with its isolation, little connection with neighboring Umbria and the wild severity so different from the welcoming Urbino. Along the channel of the muffled rumbling Metaurus are entire blocks of abandoned Renaissance palaces facing the dwelling of the proletariat, with windows cut through their walls, loggias covered with bricks, coats of arms and reliefs smoked with smoke from the hearth. The ancient Romanesque cathedral, with the chimerical symbols of the evangelists, crashes into the rock itself, and opposite it, the palace of the urban dukes, left to natural desolation, with courtyards overgrown with grass, magnificent terraces, now seated with prosaic onions, with halls and cabinets, where there is nothing speaks more about the past, except for the coat of arms over the surviving fireplace or door and solemn letters F. E. Duces.
Every year on May 15 in Gubbio there is a spectacular candle festival - colorful events on the transfer on the shoulders of three wooden devices in the form of a candle weighing 270-280 kg each.
Hubbio tourist route and attractions:
It is best to start a walking tour from the top of the city (you can climb the funicular), gradually going down to the foot.
Palazzo dei Consoli (PalazzodeiConsoli, Gattapone, 14th century) is considered a symbol of Gubbio. Today this ensemble is on piazzaGrande (Piazza Grande) became the art center of the city. Currently located here Art Gallery with the works of local artists and Archaeological Museum, in which Iguvinsky tables (II century BC) are stored copper boards with inscriptions in the ancient Umbrian language.
The city has preserved many old buildings:
- Cathedral (Duomo, XII century.),
- church of san francesco (ChiesadiSanFrancesco, XIII century.),
- palazzo ducale (PalazzoDucale, XV century) and p
- yatinefnaya Basilica of Sant Ubaldo (BasilicadiSant’Baldo, perestr. in the XVI century.).
St. Ubald was a bishop of the city in the XII century and is considered the patron saint of the city.
IN St. UbaldaMay 15th, a religious procession in historical costumes takes place in Gubbio. Statues of St. Ubalda, St. George and St. Anthony.