Cathedral of the Holy Cross and St. Eulalia (Spanish La Catedral de la Santa Cruz y Santa Eulalia ) - Catholic Cathedral in Barcelona. Also known as the Cathedral of Saint Eulalia and Barcelona Cathedral. Dedicated to the Holy Cross and St. Eulalia of Barcelona, one of the patrons of the city. Located in the Gothic Quarter.
|Cathedral of the Holy Cross and St. Eulalia|
|41 ° 23′02 ″ s w. 2 ° 10′35 ″ c. d. H G I O L|
|Location||Barcelona Old Town|
|Diocese||Archdiocese of Barcelona|
|Architectural style||Gothic architecture and historicism|
|Architect||Jaume Fabre d, Bertran Riquer d, Bernat Roca d, Arnau Bargués d, Jaume Solà d, Bartolomé Gual d, Andreu Escuder d, Josep Oriol Mestres i Esplugas d and August Font i Carreras d|
|Height||26 m, 53 m and 80 m|
|Material||Montjuïc stone d|
|Wikimedia Commons Media Files|
It is this cathedral, and not, contrary to popular belief, the Sagrada Familia, that is the residence of the Archbishop of Barcelona and the main cathedral of Barcelona.
Construction continued from 1298 to 1420 over the crypt of the former Visigothic chapel. The cathedral was built in the Gothic style, later neo-Gothic elements were introduced. Inside the cathedral is a patio open to visitors. Here in one of the chapels live white geese. The whiteness of the birds symbolizes the purity of St. Eulalia. Eulalia was only 13 years old when she received martyrdom at the hands of the Gentiles, and therefore there are exactly thirteen geese. In another part of the cathedral there is an altar dedicated to the Holy North, a contemporary of Holy Eulalia, also killed by persecutors of Christians.
The dimensions of the cathedral building are 93 m by 40 m. The height of the octagonal clock tower is about 50 m, and the height of the spire of the central tower is 70 meters.
On August 12, 1867, Pope Pius IX awarded the cathedral the title of Lesser Papal Basilica.
Opening hours of Barcelona Cathedral in 2019
Barcelona Cathedral is an active temple. Services are held in the morning and evening, the entrance is free. Free admission only includes entrance to the cathedral and monastery. Entrance to the choirs - 3 euros, entrance to the observation deck on the roof - 3 euros.
In the afternoon, paid entrance for tourists. The ticket includes a visit to the cathedral, choirs, monastery, entrance to the observation deck on the roof, a chapel, a museum, a brochure about the cathedral.
On work days:
- 8:30 - 12:30 and 17:45 - 19:30 free (service and prayers)
- 12:30 - 19:45 admission by ticket (admission stops in 30 minutes)
- 8:30 - 12:30 and 17:15 - 20:00 free (service and prayers)
- 12:30 - 17:30 admission by ticket (admission stops in 45 minutes)
On Sundays and religious holidays:
- 8:30 - 13:45 and 17:15 - 20:00 for free (service and prayers)
- 14:00 - 17:30 admission by ticket (admission stops in 45 minutes)
Barcelona Cathedral - From History
The temple was built on the foundation of a Roman basilica of the IV century, starting in 1298. But even earlier, in 1268, the chapel of St. Lucia, which has been preserved to this day (adjoins the courtyard), was built.
The construction of the temple lasted more than 150 years, until 1460. The main entrance was built much later, after four centuries, in 1870.
At the end of the 19th century, the main facade was erected and only after a quarter of a century, in 1913, a central spire appeared.
Barcelona Cathedral - Short Description
The temple was built in neo-Gothic style. its main facade is decorated with sculptures of biblical characters, angels and kings. Two octagonal bell towers are 53 meters high. On the left tower is a huge bell weighing 3 tons, called the bell of Eulalia. On the right tower are 10 smaller bells with female names. The central tower is 70 meters high.
As in many European temples, sculptures of gargoyles, ancient fantastic creatures protecting the temple from evil spirits, are used to divert rainwater.
In total, there are 6 entrance gates in the church, the main of which go to the square of St. Eulalia.
Inside, the Cathedral looks majestic and, at the same time, strictly and simply.
The main altar depicts Holy Eulalia. Under the altar, in the crypt, there is an alabaster sarcophagus with the relics of the Great Martyr.
In the central nave you will see the fence of the choir, decorated with marble bas-reliefs depicting scenes from the life of St. Eulalia. In numerous side chapels are the altars of the late XIV and XV centuries. Each of the chapels is essentially a small museum with unsurpassed examples of Catalan art.
The pride of the Cathedral is the organ located under the left bell tower. Organ concerts are held on a monthly basis in the church; their schedule can be found on the cathedral's official website.
Places of worship
Many centuries of the existence of the culture of Christianity have left an indelible imprint on the appearance of the city. Barcelona sights are very different, but the most interesting for tourists are the ancient churches and temples located in different areas of the city. In the Gothic quarter, there is the most significant church in Barcelona, from the point of view of religious life, - the Cathedral, whose visiting card is a herd of geese grazing near the entrance, symbolizing the integrity of St. Eulalia, the patroness of the temple. The unique interior attracts tourists with the Basilica of Santa Maria del Mar, built during the heyday of navigation. Another cult church is visible from anywhere in the city - the Sacred Heart Temple erected on the top of Mount Tibidabo. Thanks to these buildings, Barcelona annually attracts thousands of architecture lovers, but the largest number of tourists from all over the world come here to see the main treasure of the city - the Sagrada Familia, whose construction began in the late 19th century and continues to this day. Millions of people have been visiting Barcelona over the years to enjoy the unrivaled style of Antonio Gaudi.
The redeeming temple of the Holy Family, or the temple of Sagrada Familia, which is also sometimes mistakenly called the cathedral, although in fact it is a church, is a cultural attraction not only in Spain, but throughout the world. The recognizable silhouette of the building among tourists is no less admiring than the pyramid of Cheops. This work of art is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, despite the fact that the construction of the building has not yet been completed. Each year, Spain (Catalonia, Barcelona) receives more than three million people who want to personally enjoy the temple. The majestic Sagrada Familia against the background of the city really looks impressive. We will tell about the history of its construction below.
Construction of the Sagrada Familia
The idea of creating a church arose in 1874 quite unexpectedly, as a result of the donation of a large amount of money. Already in 1881, land was bought for construction a few kilometers from Barcelona. Yes, the temple was originally built outside the city, later Barcelona grew so much that the Sagrada Familia is now located in the most populated urban area. In March 1882, under the leadership of the architect F. del Villar, they began to lay the foundation of the building. Nevertheless, despite the large number of ideas and the availability of funds for construction, at the end of 1882 the architect refused to participate in the construction, due to the lack of agreement between him and the customer. Perhaps now Barcelona would not have the sights of such a magnitude if, after the removal from work on the project of del Villar, the architect Antonio Gaudi, who was full of enthusiasm and strength, had not joined the case. According to his idea, the temple was supposed to be very openwork, outwardly resembling a web, in the Art Nouveau style. It was assumed that the structure would be strewn with many towers, rushing up, and the remaining interior and exterior decorations would reflect individual elements of the gospel, namely the birth, crucifixion, resurrection of Christ, or other rites of the Catholic Church. According to Gaudi’s project, the temple was supposed to be like a sand castle, similar to those that children like to sit on the shore of a reservoir. It was thought that the central spire of the church in the form of a cross would have a height of 170 meters, which is one meter lower than the height of Montjuic (mountains in the city of Barcelona) - the temple should not have exceeded the perfect creation of God.
Gaudi’s grand design
The history of Barcelona was made in parallel with how the Sagrada Familia was built, because only the facade of the building was erected for more than forty years. During this time, the city has grown, confidently merged in the industrial era and began to develop rapidly. The decor of each tower, Antonio Gaudi paid close attention. He worked painstakingly and not sparing himself, and many did not understand why the architect spends so much money, time and effort on construction, because the tops of the towers were not even visible from the ground. Gaudi replied: "If people do not see, then the angels will see."
Barcelona has grown. The temple grew with her. It was thought to build three facades: Passion, Christmas and the Glory of Christ. The architect knew that such a short period of time, as human life, would not be enough to translate into reality a grandiose idea. He had to decide which of the three architectural elements to erect first. And he made a choice in favor of the facade of the Nativity, because some scenes of the crucifixion of Christ could scare the inhabitants, and their opinion was extremely important, because the construction was carried out only on donations. During the years 1909-1910 a parish school was built at the church, again according to the idea of Gaudi. Initially, it was built as a temporary building, so there were no load-bearing walls in it, and internal partitions were easily removed, due to which it was possible to easily change the layout of the space. To our days, unfortunately, the exact image of the school has not been preserved.
The death of an architect
November 30, 1925 the construction of the facade of the Nativity was completed, Gaudi was about to begin the construction of the remaining parts of the building. Over the years of the architect's work, Barcelona has acquired a unique attraction - the church was decorated with church Catholic sculptures and symbols, texts from liturgies and the Gospel. Everything turned upside down on the ill-fated day of June 7, 1926. 73-year-old Antonio Gaudi was hit by a tram when he was going to church for service. The architect was dressed very poorly, they took him for a tramp and did not even bother to take him to the hospital. On June 10, 1926, Gaudi died a little before his 74th birthday. Great man lost Barcelona! Sights created by his hands, today seek to visit millions of people, without them it is simply impossible to imagine the city. And this is not only the Sagrada Familia, although, of course, it is the main creation of the architect. Here he was buried - Gaudi was buried in the yet unfinished building of the Sagrada Familia.
Continuing the business of Antonio
The construction of the church after the death of the master did not stop, it was continued by a talented student of the architect - Domenech Sugranies, who worked with Gaudi since 1902. By 1930, the remaining two facades had been erected; they, like the first, were decorated with murals, scriptures and sculptures. However, difficult times followed. The lack of financial donations, the impending world and civil wars led to the fact that the construction of the temple was practically stopped, until 1952. Then the construction of the building was resumed, but despite the fact that for several decades now the work has been ongoing, Antonio Gaudi is still very far from the final completion of the plan. Four 120-meter towers dedicated to the evangelists Mark, John, Matthew and Luke need to be completed. On the 170-meter tower of Christ, according to the architect’s idea, a cross should be installed, and on the other four - grapes as a symbol of Communion. If no unforeseen circumstances arise, and the construction will be carried out according to plan, by 2026 the greatest construction, which began its existence in the century before last, will finally be completed. Not only Barcelona is waiting for the end of the grand construction. The temple is being helped by people from all over the world; donations are made both by Christians and representatives of other faiths. So, recently there has been a significant influx of cash from Japan.
Church of the Sacred Heart
Barcelona has some truly unique attractions. World famous photographers come here to capture this ancient and modern city with outstanding architecture. However, it will not be possible to make a complete picture of the capital of Catalonia if you do not climb Mount Tibidabo and from the observation deck do not enjoy stunning views of the city. It is here that the Church of the Sacred Heart was built, and above it stands the figure of Christ, with his hands embracing the whole world.
History and decoration of the church
Translated from Latin, the name of Mount Tibidabo sounds like "I give you." If you believe the legend, it was from the top of this mountain of Jesus Christ that the devil tempted, showing all the earthly beauties. The redemptive temple of the Heart of Christ is located at the very top of Tibidabo, therefore it is visible from any corner of Barcelona. The church was designed and built in 1902 by the architect Enric Sagnier. The construction of the temple in 1961 was completed by his son, Joseph.
The Temple of the Sacred Heart is decorated in Romanesque and Gothic styles. The decoration contains all the attributes of these architectural directions - and triangular elongated porticoes of the facade, and roses above the entrances, and peculiar windows and arches. The lower crypt is composed of five naves with ellipsoidal apses; they also serve as a platform for the upper room, where two solid stairs lead. The real decoration of the interior of the church is a multi-colored mosaic - a kind of tribute to the traditions of the art of the Byzantine period. In the icons of the temple, plot lines from the recent history of Spain are traced, on them all people are represented in modern clothes. Gothic elements - narrow windows, turrets looking at the sky, pointed arches, carved subtle details of decoration - give the church weightlessness and grace, but at the same time sculptural compositions create a mood of majestic solemnity. The facade of the building is decorated with the creations of the hands of the Catalan master Eusebi Arnau - statues of saints Jacob and George, as well as the Mother of God, and the upper part of the temple is represented by compositions of another skilled sculptor, Josep Miret. The central spire of the church is crowned with a golden statue of Christ, similar to the world famous Redeemer monument in Rio de Janeiro. At the base of the sculpture is the highest observation deck in Barcelona, which offers breathtaking views of the endless Mediterranean Sea and the capital of Catalonia washed by its gentle waves.
Cathedral (Catedral de Barcelona)
The map of city sights necessarily includes Barcelona Cathedral, the second name of which is the Cathedral of the Holy Cross and St. Eulalia. Pilgrims of the whole world direct their feet to this magnificent temple, because it is in it that the relics of the holy martyr Eulalia of Barcelona, who died at the age of 13 in 304 from the Nativity of Christ, rest in it. In the 4th century, when Eulalia lived, paganism reigned in the land of Catalonia, but the girl revered faith in Jesus, for which she was burned. Before the death, a dove flew from the martyr's mouth, and at the same time snow fell on the executioners. Several centuries passed, and Eulalia was reckoned among the saints and was dubbed the patroness of Barcelona, in her honor the main cathedral of the city was erected in the center of the Gothic quarter.
Catedral de Barcelona (photo below) is filled with many relics of historical and religious values. Its territory began to take its present form from 1268, when the chapel was built. From the first half of the 15th century it is an undeniable decoration of the city. The construction of the temple lasted 122 years, the building was erected directly on the ruins of the Roman basilica. Individual elements, for example, a spire, were made much later. Today, tourists arriving in Barcelona can appreciate the grandeur of the structure and the thoroughness of the implementation of every detail. White geese walk along the courtyard adjacent to the cathedral - this is a symbol of the purity of Eulalia. Christian shrines are stored inside the building: the remains of the Holy, resting in the sarcophagus, and the image of Jesus from the ship that participated in the battle of Lepanto. Barcelona Cathedral is a monument of art and history of national importance. St. Eulalia is revered by both Catholics and Orthodox, therefore the temple is notable for representatives of both faiths. In addition, Catedral de Barcelona serves as the residence of the Archbishop of Barcelona.
Church of the Holy Virgin of the Sea
The second most important religious building after the Cathedral in the capital of Catalonia is the Basilica of Santa Maria del Mar. It is located in the historic port area, the Ribera quarter, where sailors, merchants and nobles lived in the heyday of trade. In their honor, a church was erected over the labyrinth of medieval narrow streets. The foundation of the creation of the architect Berenguer de Montagut was laid in 1329, and already in 1383 the construction was completed. Previously, when due to natural sediment the sea had not yet retreated so far, the basilica stood near the water itself. On the tympanum of the portico we distinguish the so-called Deesis - the figure of Christ seated on the throne, on the sides of which Mary and John are kneeling. The fire that occurred in 1936 destroyed many sculptural compositions, and, in addition to these figures, only statues of Paul and Peter survived. Very interesting are the curly images that adorn the stones of the vault. First of all, this is the statue of Mary (Madonna) above the main altar, at the feet of which there is a sculpture of a sailboat, which is an allegorical autograph of the architect of the basilica. A memorial in the form of an amphitheater was built to the right of the church in a small square. A dedication to the Catalans, who died during the battle with the army of Philip V in 1714, is carved on the walls.
Orthodox Church in Barcelona
Since 2002, the Russian Orthodox Church has been operating in the capital of Catalonia. Initially, services were held in the chapel of Santa Maria Reina, and on certain days in the Montserrat Monastery and Barcelona Cathedral. However, the premises allocated to the parish were not enough for an ever-growing number of parishioners, which raised the question of finding a separate building with office space, where you could install an iconostasis and store church utensils. For these purposes, in 2011, an abandoned church of St. George, built in the neo-romantic style in the middle of the twentieth century, was leased to the Russian Orthodox Church. Now it is the Church of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary - an Orthodox church in Barcelona, where every believer who, by the will of fate, finds himself on the land of Catalonia, can come.
History of Barcelona Cathedral
The cathedral was built for more than a dozen years: the work was begun in 1298 under King Jaime II, and completed in 1420. The crypt of the ancient Roman basilica was chosen as the place of construction.
After the Moors destroyed the basilica in the 10th century, a Romanesque temple was built here with a chapel dedicated to Saint Lucia, which later was destroyed.
The main facade was completed only in the 19th century according to the preserved sketches of the 15th century by master Charles Holter. At the same time, a spire and a dome were erected. Thus, the architecture of the cathedral reflected elements of French Gothic.
On August 12, 1867, Pope Pius IX gave the cathedral the title of Lesser Papal Basilica Basilica minor.
The height of the cathedral is 93 meters, width - 40 meters. The octagonal clock towers rise about 50 meters, and the spire of the central tower - 70 meters.
On the left tower is a three-ton bell, named after St. Eulalia, on the right are 10 small bells.
According to the general style, the cathedral belongs to the Gothic style, but neo-Gothic elements are also present in its architecture. On the facade you can see a large number of statues, the main of which are the sculpture of Christ located inside the arch, and several images of the apostles.
Structurally, the cathedral consists of a wide central nave and two side passages, separated by columns. Upon entering through the main portal, a vast space opens up with bright stained-glass windows and a ceiling that extends upward.
The altar is a wooden sculpture of Christ of Lepant. Initially, it was installed on the bow of the Spanish ship Juan of Austria and suffered greatly in the battle with the Turks at Lepanto in 1571.
Since then, the sculpture has acquired a strong curvature, reminiscent of the protection of the ship from enemy attacks.
Not far from the altar are the sarcophagi of Count Ramon Berenguer I, the founder of the temple, and his wife Almodis. In the crypt are the alabaster sarcophagus of Holy Eulalia itself.
To the left of the altar is the treasury of the cathedral, in which church objects are stored. Several more altars are located nearby, which are of no less value in terms of craftsmanship.
Of great interest are carved wooden choirs located in the central part of the nave. They were created in 1517 by the craftsmen Vilar and Ordonez: they are decorated with marble bas-reliefs depicting scenes from the life of St. Eulalia.
There are two rows of armchairs with very beautiful backs, which in 1519 were crowned with gilded emblems of the Order of the Golden Fleece.
The chairs, as well as the bishop's chair, were executed by the master Sa-Anglada, and the pinacli were made by the German master Lochner.
The organ, created in 1539, is located next to the entrance of San Ivo under the left bell tower. Since then, a musical instrument has changed more than once: the last work on its improvement was carried out at the end of the 20th century.
You can listen to organ works every month - see the concert schedule on the official website.
The cathedral contains quite a few beautiful chapels. So, on the opposite side of the altar is the chapel of St. Oligaria, decorated with forged lattice of the 15th century.
Directly above the altar of Bishop Oligaria, a wooden crucifix by a 16th-century craftsman was installed.
The chapel major is located a little further. The diameter of the gallery housed chapels that store altars, which are masterpieces of Gothic and Baroque art.
In the chapel del Patrosini you can see the altar image "Transfiguration" by master Bernat Martorell.
Be sure to stroll into the picturesque patio. 13 geese live in one of the chapels, the whiteness of which symbolizes the purity of St. Eulalia. She was only 13 years old when she martyred from the attack of the Gentiles.
In one of the chapels you can see the names of 930 church servants who died during the Spanish Civil War.
In the garden is an old fountain, crowned with a statue of St. George (Sant Jordi).
Saint Eulalia is revered not only in Catholicism, but also in Orthodoxy. That is why on December 9, 2006, an Orthodox service was held in front of its relics in the Barcelona Cathedral.
Among other attractions in the cathedral you can see the Gothic monastery, preserved from the 14th century.
Excursions in Barcelona
In order not to look for where the most interesting sights of Barcelona are located, take a ready-made individual tour. A local guide will guide you and your company through the iconic places of the city or, conversely, through the unusual and informal.
You can see all the excursions and choose the most exciting on the Tripster website.
Exterior of Barcelona Cathedral
The main facade, which was built only at the end of the 19th century, in 1889, was brought as close as possible to the style of the main building, creating it in the Neo-Gothic style. It is abundantly decorated with statues, reminiscent of some large French cathedrals. The main element is the sculpture of Christ inside the arch and the image of the apostles. 76 sculptures of biblical characters, angels and kings complete the picture. The dome of the building was built simultaneously with the facade.
Two 53-meter bell towers from the end of the fourteenth century rise above the cathedral. They are built in the form of octagonal towers. On one of them (left) is a 3-ton bell bearing the name of Eulalia. There are 10 smaller bells on the right tower. All of them are also called by female names.
Gargoyles of Barcelona Cathedral
An interestingly thought out system of removal from the roof of the temple of rainwater. The mythical creatures of the gargoyles are responsible for this. According to ancient mythology, these are dragon-shaped snakes that spew water with great force. According to some church sources, they were created by the archangel Michael to fight demons. So these creatures perform two functions at once: protection from evil spirits and disposal of excess water.
Around the choir are the chapels, in which are the altars of the fourteenth century. Under the main altar in the crypt lie the remains of St. Eulalia, lying in the alabaster sarcophagus. He stands on the same carved columns. Interestingly, there is an automatic machine nearby, where you can drop a 50-cent coin. Then the sarcophagus is highlighted with lights and can be considered in more detail.
To the right of the main altar there are two more tombstones - Count Ramon Berenguer I, the founder of the temple, and his wife Almodis. On the left is the treasury of the cathedral, where objects of worship and church art are stored. In addition to the main, there are a number of other altars of a lower rank. All of them are masterpieces of church architecture and are dedicated to the great people of their era.
A large number of chapels distinguish this temple. A large number of really great people buried here are added to them, among which there are representatives of the royal dynasties.
The organ of 1539 is the pride of Barcelona Cathedral. It is located under the left bell tower at the entrance of San Ivo. Over time, mechanical and aesthetic changes were made to the organ. One of the last reconstructions was carried out in 1985-1994, after which organ concerts are held monthly. Their schedule is available on the official website catedralbcn.org.
Barcelona Cathedral Courtyard
In addition to the pond in the local garden, surrounded by palm trees, there is also an old fountain with a statue of St. George (Sant Jordi) on a horse.
Another attraction of the cathedral is a Gothic monastery of the fourteenth century. It also attracts many visitors. In addition, through the internal gallery you can go to the museum, which houses the 15th-century masterpiece La Pietat, created by Bartolome Vermejo.
A bit of history
On this place from the time of the Romans ritual constructions were built. At first there was a basilica, which was destroyed by the Moors who came here in the 10th century. Later, a Romanesque temple was erected again at this place. After a while, a chapel dedicated to Saint Lucia was built next to him. In the future, this church was destroyed in order to make way for the construction of a new, even more grandiose structure.
In 1298, King Jaime II, nicknamed the Fair for caring for ordinary people, ordered the construction of the majestic Barcelona Temple to begin. And the construction has begun. True, it did not go very fast. War or a lack of funding or an epidemic interfered. The main building could only be completed in 1460. Since then, the cathedral functioned unfinished, until the Gothic facade was built at the end of the 19th century, and another quarter century later (in 1913) they put the final point in the form of a central spire.