In this article you will learn:
Hesse is the federal state of Germany, whose capital is Wiesbaden. Its location falls on the very center of the country. The name of the area comes from the name of the ancient Germanic tribe - Hessian. Today, Hesse is a large economic and industrial center. Machine-building (Volkswagen, Opel), machine-tool and chemical industries are widely developed here. Also at a very high level is optics and jewelry manufacturing. The local winemaking gained great fame. Frankfurt, with the European Central Bank located on its territory, is also the financial center of all of Europe.
I would also like to say about the local airport, which in terms of scale is in second place among European ones and is considered the best in the country. This is an important link in air traffic. More than forty million passengers use its services annually.
History of occurrence
In the fourth century, the Great Roman Empire fell, and there was an invasion of Germanic tribes, consisting of Franks and Alemans, on the territory of modern Hesse, which at that time was quite well developed economically. From the seventh to the eighth century there was an active construction of cities and monasteries. In the twelfth century, several counties were formed, one of which was called Hesse-Darmstadt. The Thirty Years War and the Napoleonic invasion inflicted great damage on the fragmented territories, and after that the first attempts to unite them began. From 1945 to 1949, the territory was an American and French zone of occupation. In 1949, the provinces Kassel, Nassau and Hesse-Darmstadt were connected, and the federal state of Hesse was formed.
The nature of this land captivates anyone who has been here. Firstly, Hesse is famous for having a huge number of forests with magnificent hills, which occupy about forty percent of its entire area. Its beautiful, calm rivers and magnificent lakes with heather steppes are also widely known.
The most famous cities of Hesse, visited by many tourists and visitors to this land, include the following.
Wiesbaden, the administrative center of the land, has long established itself as the oldest and very popular terminal resort. It is a noble and aristocratic city. All life in it is organized taking into account all the highest standards of living and the rules of good taste. In almost every major restaurant or store you can see a sufficient number of diplomas or awards that they have been awarded.
Frankfurt am Main
It belongs to the largest metropolitan areas of Hesse. In addition to the fact that on its territory there are more than four hundred commercial banks and the tallest structure (Commerzbank Tower, 300 meters), it is also known for its historical sights. The unique Roman square is the concentration of the main and most significant of them. This is due to the fact that wars destroyed the city almost to the foundation (ninety-five percent), and only it survived without any particular damage. Now, looking at its initial arrangement, one can imagine what the city was like in ancient times. The most famous sights located here include the building of the Imperial Cathedral of St. Bartholomew, founded in the ninth century. At one time, German emperors were crowned in it.
Darmstadt is located in the south of Hesse and is considered a science city. Many well-known universities, institutes and research centers are concentrated here.
Those who are fond of fine art will benefit from visiting Kassel with the Brothers Grimm Museum, the largest exhibition of contemporary art, a magnificent mountain park and ancient fountains. Kassel runs through the famous street of fairy tales, which begins in Hanau and goes to Bremen for six hundred kilometers. It is here that the most felt fairy-tale atmosphere of fairy tales, still present in the whole of Hesse.
Hanau is a small but very cozy town of Gnessen. Here is the famous monument to the Brothers Grimm, which along with the city hall is the decoration of the market square.
Popular tourist destinations
A huge number of interesting places, architectural attractions and conditions for a comfortable stay, leave no opportunity to see all the greatness of Hesse in one visit. The most interesting and visited places by tourists include:
• The Main Tower skyscraper in Frakfurt am Main, where from a height of two hundred meters you can view the whole city and its surroundings,
• Biebrich Palace (Wiesbaden), dating back to the beginning of the eighteenth century and serving as the summer residence of the dukes ruling at that time,
• The Botanical Garden of Palmengarten (Frankfurt am Main), which is one of the largest in the country,
• Forest Spiral (Darmstadt) - a modern unusual residential complex with a complete absence of corners. Its roof is covered with trees and shrubs, and the courtyard is decorated with a pond with fish and frogs,
• Lorelei cliff (right bank of the Rhine), where according to ancient legends in the caves is the Nibelungen gold, guarded by elves,
• Zababurg - the castle of the sleeping beauty, located in the forest of the same name, where you can see trees that remember the ancient Romans. It is also known for the presence of unique plants preserved from the time of the melting of glaciers,
• The famous fortress Levenburg, considered one of the most beautiful castles in the world. Its location is the Bavarian Alps, and it stands directly on a hill whose height is more than ninety meters.
Well, of course, you cannot get the most complete picture of Hesse without visiting its ski resorts and thermal springs.
How to get there
Hesse has the largest international airport in Germany and throughout Europe - in Frankfurt. This grand transshipment point has repeatedly won the title of the best airport in the world. You can get to the center of Frankfurt from here in 10-20 minutes. Like most German lands, the region has good transport accessibility. From north to south, Hesse crosses the A 7 motorway. The railway network connects local communities with other European states. Having rented a car, you can choose the route A 4 as a route.
Weather in Hesse
One of the fastest growing regions of Europe has a temperate climate with a transitional character - from maritime to continental. The average January temperature is between 0 ° C and +2 ° C. In mid-summer, temperatures range from +18 ° C to +20 ° C. There is little rainfall in this part of Germany, winters are mild, despite the pronounced mountainousness of most of the territory.
Book popular Hesse hotels at the best prices
In addition to traditional smoked sausages, hops, wines and stewed cabbage in Hesse, green sauce (gris-zoss) is always on the tables. Goethe himself liked a specific dish; a dish of several types of herbs is being prepared — there must be at least nine of them. Seasoning is served with meat, fish, and it is eaten with bread and asparagus.
In the gastronomic arsenal of Hesse also appear: apfelvine, or apple wine, sour milk handkez cheese, Kartoffel-Bloatz - bread with bacon, onion and baked potatoes. The Hessians themselves call the light apple wine Ebbelva. In any of the cities of the region you will be welcomed with these culinary masterpieces.
Entertainment and Attractions
The heart of Germany is of considerable interest to tourists. Picturesque vineyards here are interspersed with emerald hills, and historical monuments will tell a lot about the days of the past. Hesse abounds with healing spas with amazing mineral springs. The factories of automobile giants - Volkswagen, Opel and others - are located on this federal land. International fairs are organized in the cities of the region, and book exhibitions in Frankfurt. The economic center of the territory is known for fantastic skyscrapers, St. Paul’s Cathedral, St. Bartholomew’s Cathedral, “Museum Embankment”, Remeberg Square, Goetestrasse Street and other attractions that form the spirit of “Chicago on the Main”.
Wiesbaden, the main city of Hesse, is a famous balneological resort. However, there are enough iconic places in the capital - the Russian Church of St. Elizabeth, the Old and New Town Halls, the Marktkirche Church, Palace Square. In Darmstadt, do not lose sight of Louise Square, the quaint complex “Forest Spiral”, “Wedding Tower”. Attractions here are concentrated on the Matildenhehe hill.
Marburg is one of the six German university cities, the Protestant University in it was founded in 1527.
In the east of the region lies the ancient town of Fulda, which has preserved many baroque structures. It has a whole “Baroque quarter”, the City Castle, the Fonderau Art Museum, the Church of St. Michael, the Cathedral of St. Salvator. In the old part of this village, half-timbered architecture is presented. Popular routes include visits to national parks, Marburg - the university city where M.V. Lomonosov studied.
Many tourists tend to get to Hesse just to see Kassel. The symbol of the city is the Hercules statue, whose height is 8.5 meters. It is impossible not to see it - a complex structure is installed on a hill, the climb on which is decorated with a cascade of steps and Wilhelmshee park complex with waterfalls, streams, flower fields and fountains. The pilgrimage site of the city guests is considered the Levenburg fortress, built in the 18th century. It has been preserved almost unchanged, a sightseeing object is surrounded by a moat, in an old castle, a collection of armor, weapons, statues, furniture will open to the eyes of visitors.
The Grimm brothers lived in Kassel at the beginning of the 19th century; a monument and a museum are dedicated to world famous storytellers.
In Karlsau Park, the castle of the same name in 1701 is available for visits, within the walls of which a greenhouse with exotic plants is arranged. The monument in the form of a giant pickaxe on the banks of Fulda looks original, the Wallpaper Museum is effectively decorated. Once every five years, Kassel hosts the Documente exhibition on contemporary art. The city has the status of “Fairytale Roads”, along the magical path you can get to the castle of the Sleeping Beauty Zababurg, on the hill Hoer Meisner with the house of the Old Woman Metelitsa.
Braunfels Castle was first mentioned in a document dated January 3, 1246. In the place of today's castle, initially there was only a tower, built in a prominent place on the basis of basalt rocks. Then it was expanded, two more towers were added, surrounded by a wall. Then came the defensive tower, the Knight's Hall and the old castle.
Visitors are invited to take a walk in the courtyard and explore the most beautiful rooms of the castle. You can go on an excursion to the armory, or a tour of sacred art.
The adventure tour includes a costumed display of the castle and a story about its history. Children will especially enjoy a walk around the castle, here they will find a lot of new experiences.
Almost everyone knows the fascinating story of the learned Frankenstein and the monster he created. There are many historical facts that indicate that the world-famous novel, written by Mary Shelley, actually originates in Frankenstein Castle. It is located southeast of Darmstadt.
The exact date of construction remains uncertain, but it is known that the castle was first mentioned in 1252. Frankenstein Castle survived many eras, which reflected in its architectural styles. The very first southern main castle was built, with residential buildings and a narrow courtyard. Then they added the outer thick walls of the castle. And for the best protection, a circular wall was built, a moat was dug in the front of the tower gate, there was a drawbridge with a long entrance to the castle.
Greifenstein Castle is a monument of national importance. The unique silhouette of the castle is the most recognizable symbol of the region. From the height of the hill on which the castle stands, a picturesque landscape opens.
It houses the most important collection of bells in Germany. And here is waiting for an exciting tour of the history of thousands of bells from around the world. The castle itself is unique both in architecture and in historical events that took place over his life. Here, each of its stones can tell its own story.
In 1908, a dam was built near Lake Eder, which is located in the federal state of Hesse. At an altitude of 200 m above the lake rises a beautiful castle Waldeck. It was built in the 12th century.
The castle terrace offers fantastic views of the lake and the wooded mountains of the national park. You can walk around the castle on your own. And you can use the services of a guide who will hold a show and an interesting story about the history of a medieval castle.
Church of christ
One of the oldest and largest Protestant churches is located in the city of Fulda, the administrative district of Kassel in the German state of Hesse. It stands in the middle of the city, halfway between the central railway station and the City Palace.
The Protestant Church - the Church of Christ is of great importance for the religious community, is the venue for church music concerts, and it is also one of the most interesting attractions for tourists.
The first stone in the foundation of the building was laid July 24, 1894. Today, the well-designed interior of the church allows visitors to spend their time here in thought and prayer. The floors are covered with sandstone slabs, the ceiling is painted in bright blue, symbolizing divinity, the central corridor leads to the font and the altar, and benches are placed on the sides.
In Wiesbaden in the city center is the Boniface Church. A beautiful and majestic cathedral, with two spiers towering above the city. Its doors are always open to parishioners. Inside the large hall, visitors pass towards the center where the altar is installed.
There are countless prayer candles in the hall. In large window stained glass play the sun's rays. From such light, and daylight, and the light of lights from candles, a special aura is felt in the cathedral, an aura of mystery and tranquility.
How nice it is for travelers to see parts of their own country in other countries. The feeling of closeness of the house develops in them, looking at the Russian Church. This is a beautiful and valuable building for the city of Wiesbaden, it is visible and stands out from afar.
In architecture, it resembles the Moscow Cathedral of Christ the Savior, it is built according to its model. The church serves the Russian community as a parish church.
Monument to the Brothers Grimm
For more than one generation has grown up on fairy tales, the world famous brothers Grimm. A monument is erected on the market square of Hanau city of Hesse.
The total height of the monument is 6.45 meters. The sculpture of one of the brothers - William Grimm - in a sitting position, next to him is the second brother Jacob Grimm - standing. An open book lies on William’s lap, and both brothers read it.
The famous poet Johann Wolfgang Goethe was born in the German city of Frankfurt. In honor of him, streets and government agencies, such as the Goethe University, are named in Germany.
In 1844, a monument was erected in his hometown. It is a high bronze pedestal and a sculpture of the poet, also made of bronze. The poet looks thoughtfully into the distance, in his hand is his scroll of poetry. Reliefs are visible on the pedestal, in the form of characters of works - allegorical figures of Goethe's lyric poetry.
Niederwalddenkmal - a monument to Germany
The German Monument is located in the Niederwald National Park. The author of the project is Johannes Schiller. The monument impresses with its huge size, from the base to the top its height is 38.18 meters.
The composition, mounted on a pedestal, has a height of about 12.5 meters, and an inscription engraving at its base commemorates the German-Prussian war and the unification of the empire in 1870-1871. There are many bas-reliefs on the monument; in total, 133 people are displayed here.
First of all, these are generals and princes who played an important role in history. Among them is a Prussian guardsman with a flag and next to a Saxon infantryman carrying a drum. All 133 figures are made in full size. On either side of the main bas-reliefs are two other characters symbolizing war and peace. On the left side is a scene of farewell to the soldiers, and on the right is shown their return.
Lorsch Monastery is one of the main attractions of the state of Hesse. Its history goes far back into the past, it was founded in 764. The amazing engraving of Matteus Merian, 1615, which depicts a monastery with all its buildings, has survived to this day.
Until the 90s of the 20th century, everything possible was done to find out about the most important architectural components of the monastery ensemble, archaeological excavations were carried out, ancient manuscripts were studied. From the important medieval monastery, the “Royal Hall”, partially the church and the monastery wall, have been preserved. And in 2008/2009, as part of the program for the preservation of historical and cultural heritage, funds were allocated to restore the monastery. Now the monastery owns a garden of medicinal plants, a monastery wall, Karolingov estate, a large museum center.
Archaeological Park - Saalburg in the State of Hesse
The main gates of the Archaeological Park and the open-air museum open the way for all guests following in the footsteps of the Romans. At the end of the first century, a Roman border camp was built in the Taunus Mountains. The Saalburg area was booming, with up to 2,000 soldiers and civilians living in this military settlement.
There were asphalt roads, shops, bars, the infrastructure of the settlement was well developed, but it was attacked by German tribes and Saalburg was finally abandoned. In the middle of the 19th century, the first archaeological excavations were carried out in these places. Then they reconstructed the Saalburg fortress. And in 2005, Saalburg was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
On the territory of the archaeological park there is a castle, a museum, an archaeological collection has been assembled, costumed performances are held for guests of the park, which show the life of Roman troops. You can also go on an excursion demonstrating various crafts.
Not far from Messel there is an interesting quarry, Messel quarry. In this place, fossilized fossils of early animals were discovered. Extensive paleontological excavations are still underway here. Tourists come here to look at it and even take part in such excavations. Special tours are offered, shows are held. An observation deck has been built on the edge of the quarry, from where you can look inside, even without participating in an excursion.
Wilhelmshoehe - Mountain Park
In the administrative district of Kassel, the state of Hesse, there is a unique park - Wilhelmshöhe Mountain Park.
Among the special places in the park are the Löwenburg Medieval Castle, Wilhelmshöhe Palace with a flower greenhouse, and an adjoining castle for celebrations, Baroque and romantic fountains, waterfalls, small buildings - the Socrates Hall and the Temple of Mercury. And the main building - the Karl Landgraf Hesse-Kassel Building - is a real miracle of architecture, it is built in the Baroque style, right in the cave and symbolizes the triumph of art over nature. The monumental hydraulic structures of the park attract here curious travelers from all over the world for many centuries.
Kellerwald Edersee National Park
The UNESCO World Heritage List includes five forest sites in Germany. They represent the most valuable remaining large untouched beech forests. When traveling through Hesse, you should definitely visit the Kellerwald Edersee National Park. This terrain is hilly, there are many stones, steep descents. Apparently due to this, the use of forestry was difficult, and the forest was not subjected to deforestation.
The territory of this forest was made a reserve due to the diversity of plant and animal species that lived here. A walk through the national park will give happy moments, create a feeling of calm and serenity. Rocky mounds, tall trees, sometimes bizarre and even a little fabulous in shape, a huge number of streams and clean sources of water - all this is Kellerwald Edersee National Park. From animals here you can see a black stork, an eagle owl, a kite, woodpeckers, bats, and many rare bugs.
Traveling in Germany through the land of Hesse on warm days beginning here in early May and lasting until October, your extensive excursion program and exploring many magnificent palaces and museums with a huge collection of interesting exhibits can be diversified by trips to wonderful natural parks and gardens.
One of these gardens is the Dahlia Garden in Fulda. Walks in it at the end of summer are especially tempting, when more than 30 varieties of dahlias bloom here. The garden is open daily from 9:00 in the morning until 19:00 in the evening. The garden has a beautiful view, from here you can see the Cathedral Square of the city.
Even traveling through Europe, you can meet the inhabitants of Africa. Lviv and crocodiles, monkeys and rhinos offers to see the zoo in Frankfurt, founded in 1858. It is interesting to watch the impressive wildlife of Africa and other continents.
Lives here more than 4,500 animalsrepresented by 500 different species. Especially for young visitors there is a children's contact zoo, and on weekends you can ride a pony.